Learn Na'vi > Advanced Grammar

Comparatives?

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Zángtsuva:
So, as I understand it, Na'vi is not supposed to have comparative or superlative forms; instead, you can just use the ordinary form of the adjective/adverb with to.
E.g., Yom nìwin frato tsapalulukan.
That makes perfect sense to me. Indo-European languages are very nitpicky when it comes to adjective/adverb comparison. ;D

But then in the dictionary we get the words nì'ul and nulkrr translated with English comparatives. Are those really the comparative forms of nìtxan and txankrr? If so, why do they exist? If not, how are you supposed to use them? ???

Tirea Aean:
your use of frato is perfect. frato is indeed the superlative, as in your example:

Yom nìwin frato tsapalulukan.
That thanator eats faster than every other
That thanator eats the fastest.
That thanator eats the most quickly
etc. etc.


Usage of nìtxan and txankrr: There is no baseline or comparison; you are just saying that whatever it is, is a considerable degree or degree of time.

Ngeyä kxetse lor lu nìtxan. PF
Your tail is very beautiful.
(what is this comparing to? It's kind of not really comparing anything. imo, It's just saying the degree of beauty is higher than average)

Hufwa mefo leru muntxatu txankrr, mi lu munsnar hona tìflrr a na pum meyawnetuä amip nìwotx.PF
Although the two of them have been mates a long time, they still have all the adorable tenderness of new sweethearts.

Usage of nì'ul and nulkrr: Here, there isn't usually a baseline or comparison either; you are just saying that whatever it is, is more or longer than it was >0.0s ago.

Nga läpivawk nì’it nì’ul ko.PF
Tell me a bit more about yourself.

Ke tsun awnga pivey nulkrr—txew lok.PF
We can’t wait any longer—time is almost up.
(again, this isn't comparing to anything specific either.)

Usage of to and frato: There is an explicit comparison to one or more objects, or the entirety of the remainder of the entire set of that object.

Po to oe lu koak.PF
He is older than me.

Nìlun ayioi a’eoio ayeyktanä lu lor frato.PF
Of course the ceremonial wardrobes of the leaders are the most beautiful.

All example sentences taken verbatim from naviteri.org

Does that help at all?

Plumps:
You don’t need special forms (except for swey and ’e’al).

nì’ul and nìnän are used when you don’t have a point of comparison:
Tsapalulukan yom nì’ul. “That thanator eats more.”
Rutxe, wem nìnän. “Please, fight less.”

You could be nitpicky and say that there is always an implied comparison but it has never come up.

nì’ul comes from ’ul “increase”, nulkrr from nì’ul krr as in layeiu oer krr nì’ul, “I’ll have more time”.

ninja’d by nawma Tirea :P

Vawmataw:
Extra info: Po to oe lu koak nì'ul is incorrect. ;)

Blue Elf:

--- Quote from: Vawmataw on April 05, 2015, 01:29:44 pm ---Extra info: Po to oe lu koak nì'ul is incorrect. ;)

--- End quote ---
Or by other words: to translates not as "than", but "more than":

Po to oe lu koak -> He is older than me (He is more old than me)
Po to oe lu 'ewan -> He is younger than me (He is more young than me)

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