Author Topic: Na'vi Reference Grammar  (Read 14476 times)

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Offline Pxipxúntil

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #60 on: December 15, 2010, 05:59:26 pm »
Hello I have a question about verb morphology. How are the rules for infixes in verbs with pseudowovels. For example plltxé in perfective future aly. The right form is  palylltxé or some different?
Srekrr tsatskxétsyìp tolúl tsáwla ayskxéä tìzusúpit...

Offline Kì'eyawn

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #61 on: December 15, 2010, 06:29:31 pm »
Kaltxì ma tsmuktu.

The short answer is, "it depends"  ;D

In a verb like plltxe, in which the accent falls on the second syllable ("pll-TXE"), the pseudovowel can disappear.

So...

plltxe + <ol> = poltxe

but as long as you don't have l jutting up against ll, the pseudovowel will remain.

So, perlltxe, paylltxe, pamlltxe, peykivlltxänge...  etc. are good.

But in a verb like frrfen, in which the pseudovowel takes the stress ("FRR-fen"), the pseudovowel does NOT disappear.  Instead, it basically eats the offending infix  ;D

So, frrfen + <er> ≠ *ferrrrrrfen —> frrfen

But folrrfen, fayrrfen, famrrfen, fäpìyrrfeien, etc. all are fine.

Does that help?
eo Eywa oe 'ia

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Offline Pxipxúntil

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #62 on: December 15, 2010, 07:49:49 pm »

Sráne, tsaw si srung. Óe ngáru seiyí iráyo ma tsmuké álu Kì'éyawn. :)

I assumed it depends. All the forms you mentioned are clear for me. Just that palylltxé (and similar infixes with „–y“ ending after a consonant, like –asy–, –ìly–, ary– etc.) made little bit of confussion to me.

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« Last Edit: December 15, 2010, 07:52:04 pm by Pxipxúntil »
Srekrr tsatskxétsyìp tolúl tsáwla ayskxéä tìzusúpit...

Offline Muzer

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #63 on: December 16, 2010, 07:23:21 am »
It's fine, because Frommer made a quite low-profile change a while back - pseudovowels can start with consonant clusters now.
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Offline Kì'eyawn

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #64 on: December 16, 2010, 10:12:30 am »

Sráne, tsaw si srung. Óe ngáru seiyí iráyo ma tsmuké álu Kì'éyawn. :)

I assumed it depends. All the forms you mentioned are clear for me. Just that palylltxé (and similar infixes with „–y“ ending after a consonant, like –asy–, –ìly–, ary– etc.) made little bit of confussion to me.

Nìprrte'  :)

I think i might know why palylltxe looks weird to you.  Bear in mind that in Na'vi y is always a consonant, not a vowel. 

And while Muzer is right that pseudovowels can be preceded by consonant clusters, *ly is not an allowable consonant cluster—consonant clusters only start with F, S, or Ts.  So, the syllables in this word break up like this:

pal-yll-txe

Set tsaw law lu nì'ul srak?
eo Eywa oe 'ia

Fra'uri tìyawnur oe täpivìng nìwotx...

Offline Pxipxúntil

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #65 on: December 16, 2010, 05:46:23 pm »
Tolél! Pxisét óel tslam tsáwit nìwótx. Iráyo 'áwlo nìmún mengáru. Lu nawm ayngéyä tsulfäri mì fìlì'fya lefpóm últe óe lu mi sngä'iyutsyìp.

When I see the syllable break up, it do not look weird anymore :)

By this way I want to thank to William Annis for great work on na'vi grammar :)
Srekrr tsatskxétsyìp tolúl tsáwla ayskxéä tìzusúpit...

Offline 'Oma Tirea

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #66 on: December 16, 2010, 10:23:35 pm »
So, frrfen + <er> ≠ *ferrrrrrfen —> frrfen

HRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRH that's a lot a 'RRs for an incorrect infix XD

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Offline Taronyu

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #67 on: December 17, 2010, 06:33:00 am »
Regarding 6.2.7 - do we have any examples of to being used as attaching to the end of the root?

Also, any idea why Frommer might isolate to and frato, and label them PIV, if they act like normal adpositions?

I'd find it weird to have ngafrato, but I can see how that wouldn't happen.

Offline wm.annis

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #68 on: December 26, 2010, 07:55:11 pm »
Updated to 1.10.  Notable changes:

  • clarified use of dative and transitivity with verbs of speaking;
  • adverbs in a-
  • canonical use of luke
  • order of adpositions with complex noun phrases
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A Na'vi Reference Grammar

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #69 on: January 10, 2011, 02:16:07 pm »
I would appear that the adposition pximaw- is missing from your adposition list.

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Offline wm.annis

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #70 on: January 10, 2011, 04:35:02 pm »
I would appear that the adposition pximaw- is missing from your adposition list.

That'll be in the next release.  Irayo.
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A Na'vi Reference Grammar

Offline Pxipxúntil

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SOME QUESTIONS AND PERSONAL OPINIONS ABOUT NAVI GRAMMAR
« Reply #71 on: January 14, 2011, 08:04:56 pm »
First, I have to thank to Wilyìm one more time for that work on the Reference Grammar. Very helpful :) Most things are clear, but I am not sure in some things (partly because I am not linguistic, partly because my english is not very good :) So I appeal to somebody from here, who is more experienced in navi and can help me. And maybe these issues, which I mention below, will be helpful too :)
==============================

1. Nouns
My language (czech) distinguishes a group of nouns called "nouns of substance". That mean nouns refering to some substance, like water, blood etc. These nouns are allways used in singular, never in plural. How is it in navi?

Using of short and long case affixes is apparently free. But when I try to speak in navi, pronunciation is easier if I use the affixes also accordingly to first letter of next word. For example:
tìngáyur oeyä (better than tìngáyru oeyä)
tìngáyru ngeyä (better than tìngáyur ngeyä)
This is only my opinion.

The noun tìruséy means "living", noun tìréy "life" and verb rey is "to live". So from the verb táron we have tìtusáron, which means "hunting". So "hunt" is tìtáron? Or should be just táron like in the word for a rite Uniltáron "Dream Hunt"? Or in names like this is just not needed use of the prefix tì-.

2. Adjectives
If the verb slu is used for adjectives like lu or 'éfu, can I say instead of adjective this below?
Kilván slolú txur. "River became strong. = River is stronger (has intensified)"
Kóak slolú nga. "You became old. = You are older (now)."

3. Personal Pronouns
How are the ceremonial forms of the third person?
póhe / pohán / pohé ??

Are these forms in other cases correct?
óheìl, ngengáìl, póheìl / pohánìl / pohéìl ??

And how is the colloquial form of third person in topical? Póri and poéri are clear. Masculin form is poánìri or does exist some shorter version (should be poári)?

And colloquial third person in genitiv are these:
péyä / poánä / poéyä ??

4. Correlatives
Demonstrative pronoun fìtxán is used for abstract quantity (like interrogative pìmtxán "how much")? And for number quantity should be pronoun fìpxáy (with interrogatives polpxáy and holpxáype)?

How can I say "how many times" (for multiple numbers) and "how manyeth" (for ordinal numbers)?

The word kew "zero" should be used like a negative pronoun of quantity in meaning "no one"? I know there is káwtu, but if I understand it good, it means more precisely "nobody".

I am not sure, how create genitive forms of these pronouns:
Demonstratives:
fìpó      →   fìpéyä ?
tsatú / po   →   péyä ?
fayfó      →   fayféyä ?
tsaytú / fo   →   féyä
fì'ú      →   fwéyä ???
fay'ú      →   fayéyä ???
tsa'ú      →   tséyä ?
sa'ú      →   séyä ?
Interrogative:
pesú/túpe   →   pesúä/túpeyä ?
peú/'úpe   →   peúä/'úpeyä ?
Negative:
ké'u      →   kéyä ?
Other:
frá'u      →   fréyä ?
lá'u       →   léyä ?
kéteng'u    →   kétengeyä ?
téng'u       →   téngeyä ?

5. Numbers
If for cardinal numbers the question word is polpxáy or holpxáype, then what is the question for ordinal numbers - polpxáyve? pxáyve? vepáy?

And the question for multiple numbres (how many times) - álo polpxáy? pxáylo? There are only three forms for multiple numbers ('áwlo, mélo, pxélo). If I want to tell other, I have to use them like a normal adjective with the word álo or are permitted these forms:

tsìlo      "four times"
mrrlo      "five times"
púlo      "six times"
kílo      "seven times"
vólo      "eight times"
voláwlo      "nine times"
vomúlo      "ten times"
vopéylo   "eleven times"
vosìlo      "twelve times"
vomrrlo      "thirteen times"
vofúlo      "fourteen times"
vohílo      "fifteen times"
mévolo      "sixteen times"
etc.

There are few indefinite numerals ('á'aw, hol, pxay...). How can I say "several/few times" ???

6. Verbs - Aspect
If the perfect of the verb plltxé is poltxé, how is it with words that have unstressed "rr" - for example krrnékx "consume time". I suppose the right form is kolrrnékx. What about an irregular form kornékx. And similarly for the imperfect should be other irregular form - for example peltxé (right form is perlltxé). This is only my opinion and I can say I like it. Maybe is possible use it in some dialects? And do we know something about dialects?

7. Verbs - Mood
If I understand it good, there are three forms for imperative.
   Plltxé!
   Pivlltxé!
   Plltxé ko! / Pivlltxé ko!
First two forms are clear. But the third, not so much. I know that Kivä ko! and Makto ko! are right. But first verb is with subjunctive infix and the second no. Is possible to say Kä ko! and Miväkto ko! ? Or how is it? Some verbs take the infix and some no?

8. Verb "SI"
If somebody ask to me and the verb is formed with si (for example: Nga tsap'álute solí póru srak? "Did you apologize to him?"), can I answer just this - Solí. "Yes, I did." or Solí mi ke. "Not yet." ?

9 Modal verbs
What is the modal verb for "have to". Same like "must" zéne?

10. Adpositions
For "into, inside" we have némfa. And for "outside" should be ftúmfa?

I didnt find any adposition "for" ("I have something for you) - what about that?

I do not understand to the adpositions fkip (up among), takíp (from among), tafkíp (from up among). My english-czech dictionnary does not know these, nor the on-line dictionaries.

11. Conjunctions
10.1. I am not sure, if I understand good to conjuctions ki "but rather, but instead" and tup "instead of, rather than". The second one is used in Nga plltxé ke nìfyéyntu ki nì'éveng. "You speak not like an adult but a child." So can I say Nga plltxé na nì'éveng (nì'évengna) tup nìfyéyntu. "You speak like a child, rather than an adult." ??

10.2. How can I say "That thanator is closer, than you think.". Is it correct: Palulúkan tok to asím to nga fperìl. ???

10.3. The interrogation fyápe mens "how". Can I use just the root fya like a conjunction, for example: Óe táron fya omúm swey. "I hunt how best I know." ??

10.4. Using the conjunction hufwá "although", can I say Sáwtutel weykolém awngáti hufwá ke new. "Sky people made us fight, although we do not want." ??

10.5. Adverb nìrángal is used in phrases of wish - the past is expressed with perfect subjunctive (-ilv-), the present with imperfective subujntive (-irv-), but how can I express the future. Just with subjunctive (-iv-)? For example Nìrangal kivä sáwtute! "I wish the sky people will get out." ??

12. Interjection
11.1. We have interjection of good surprise nang, for example in phrase Nang lóra tsko! "What a nice bow!" Can exist some interjection of bad surprise? What about näng, like the infix of negative attitude. I think when a human begginer do not pronounce it well, can change the sense of the phrase and maybe offense the Navi hearer too. I think it happens in some languages on Earth as well.

11.2. The interjection pak means disparagement. What about an interjection with contemptuous meaning. I invented kxä ??

11.3. Can I say Frawzó, kivä ko. ín meaning "O.K., lets go." ??

13. Colloquial and ceremonial form of speech
How can I express "colloquial" and "ceremonial" ??

colloquial speech = Naviyä lí'fya letrr or shortly Nìtrr
ceremonial speech = Naviyä lí'fya 'éoio or shortly Nì'éoio

14. Personal names
We have 2 official full names - Neytirì te Tskaha Mo'at'ite and Tsu'tey te Rongloa Atey'itan. But do we know something more about personal names? For example what means te and what is Tskaha or Rongloa (something like a family or house??). And if in the full name appears, that the person is daughter (for women) or son (for men), why is there only one of the parents and the second one no.

15. Geographical names
About geogragraphy we know very little. I am a gamemaster in RPG that I play with some friends and we use a fictional map. Accordingly to many ways, that are using the Earth languages for creating geographical names, I made some names on my map without rigid gramatical rules of Navi. Because I am not sure, how it could be. Can somebody (if not Pawl Fromrr or Wilyìm :) ) point me errors or give me suggestions?

REFERENCES FOR MAP BELOW:
==========================
1 - Káwtuä Atkxkxé "Land of Nobody" = corner of a larger country, where many thanators can be found
2 - Anúraì = home of clan IRAKANO (Thanator Riders)
3 - Téyra Ayóra "White Lakes" = home of clan KXINAKOTA
4 - Virätxáyo "Wide Spreads" = home of clan VIRAKOTA
5  Plains of Goliath - Kaóliä Teì = entrance to hidden region Tantalus Ta'antasí, place of events in Avatar The Game
6 - Kxánìa Taw = home of clan PAYAKOTA, entrance to hidden region Vaderas Hollow Va'érä Ramúnong, place of events in Avatar The Game
7 - Tsáwla Heyn "Big Seat" = home of clan KXINIKXNIKIKA
8 - Hì'ia Heyn "Little Seat" =
9 - Sruséwa Kxa "Dancing Mouth" =
10 - Lìma Tul "Far run" =
11 - Lómo  =
12 - Lómpok  = home of clan POKONO
13 - Zongzék  =
14 - Papáng  = home of clan PAPAYA
15 - Pxllpx  =
16 - Weypxún "Calm Bay" = home of clan HUYAYA
17 - Txiktxìm  = home of clan TXIKTO (one of 5 Horsemen clan of the plains, Clan of the Mountain Fox), "txik" is a specie of mountain animal translated as "fox"
18 - Omekxán "Blue Barrier" = home of clan PXEYOTO (one of 5 Horsemen clan of the plains, Clan of the Cactus), "pxeyówll" is a specie of plant that gives food"fox"
19 - Ftxìfwäk "Tongue of Orchid" =
20 - Ayzá'liyä Atxkxé "Land of Unicorns" = home of clan ZALIMAKTO (one of 5 Horsemen clan of the plains, Clan of the Unicorn), "zá'li" is a kind of horse with one horn"
21 - Ayfá'liyä Atxkxé "Land of Direhorses" = home of clan PALIMAKTO (one of 5 Horsemen clan of the plains, Clan of the Dire Horse)
22 - Ayáuä Teì "Land of Drums" = home of clan AUTU (one of 5 Horsemen clan of the plains, Clan of the Talking Drum), "áu" is a kind of drum used to communicate in long distances"
23 - 'Éle'a Ná'rìng  "Thorny Wood" =
24 - Yìm  "The Binding" =
25 - Spxámeng "Mushroom Chasm" =
26 - Sngiäng =
27 - Snutséng =
28 Hallelujah Mountains - Kxusánga Ayskxé  "Thundering Rocks" = place of movie events, place of a rite IKNIMAYA
29 - Tárontxar = home of clan OMATIKAYA (Guardians of Blue Flute), place of movie events
30 - Kxáylakx "Highlands" = home of clan KXAYLU
31 - Fwélakx  "Broken Lands" =
32 - Kxénera Ayrám  "Smoky Mountains" =
33 - Yápayä Ná'rìng "Mistwood" = home of clan OMASAYA
34 - Yómatan "Light Eater Swamp" = home of clan WAMPANOAPA
35 - Tìpik = home of clan TIPIKAYA
36 - Syén'aw  "Last Island" =
37 - Tórukä Ná'rìng  "Wood of Leonopteryx" = place of events in Avatar The Game
38 - Swótulu "Sacred River" = home of clan TIPANI, place of events in Avatar The Game
39 - Aywáyä Ná'rìng "Wood of Songs" = home of clan OWAMI
40 - Ngíma Tìrán  "Long Way" =
41 - Tsyor  =
42 - Héwkeì  =
43 - Íkrana Ayáwkx  "Banshee Cliffs" =
44 - Táronyuä Tsúrokx  "Hunters Respite" =
45 - Apxáì  = home of clan APXAROKA
46 - Zamúngri  =
47 - Vofuhilván "Fourteen Rivers" = home of clan NYANKAYA
48  Blue Lagoon - Ehó'nyongol = home of clan NYONGOLA, place of events in Avatar The Game, RDA base Blue Lagoon with scientist camp lead by doctor Reno Harper
49  Needle Hills - Pxía Aysré "Sharp Teeths" = place of events in Avatar The Game, RDA base Needle Hills
50  FEBA - Tstéuä Fpéio "Challenge of Brave" = entrance to hidden region Lost Cathedral Tìréyä Txep "Fire of Life", place of events in Avatar The Game
51 Grave's Bog - Txópuä Fpéio "Challenge of Fear" =  place of events in Avatar The Game
52 Hanging Gardens - Tíreayä Fpéio "Challenge of Spirit" = place of events in Avatar The Game
53 - Pxetsáwkeyä Tse'á  "Three Sun Watch" = in some periods is possible here to see all three suns
54 - Pámtseoä Lur  "Valley of Music" =
55 - Txúkxpay "Lake Deepwater" = home of clan TAWTSYAYA
56 - Wáytelem  "Songchord Waterfalls" = one of the biggest waterfalls on Pandora
57 - Íkrana Veyatsé = home of clan VAYAHA
58 - Íknimaya  "Path to Heaven" =
59 - Íkranä Kel  "Home of Banshees" =
60 - Ikskxé "Sky Rocks" =
61 - Tswayonkxé = home of clan IKTSWAYA (Ikran People of the Eastern Sea)
62 - Txampáyä Fahéw "Smell of Sea" = home of clan TXAMPONGA
63 - Tórtsyìp "Little end" =
64 - Ayäíeyä Ná'rìng  "Wood of Visions" = home of clan OPI, ritual called "ta'opia'éywahu'ana"
65 - Ayfkíoä Ayóra  "Lakes of Tetrapterons" =
66 - Ayrítiyä Ayóra  "Lakes of Stingbats" =
67 - Tìfnúä Ná'rìng  "Wood of Silence" =
68 - Mawéyä Ná'rìng  "Wood of Calm" = home of clan OKITANKAYA, ritual called "ta'meri'éywahu'ana"
69 - Txóayä Téswo  "Certainty of Forgivness" =
70 - Ayhufwéyä Tìról  "Song of Winds" = home of clan TAWKAMI (Sky Seers)
71 - Sópuyä Ram  "Mountain of Travellers" =
72 - Kxám "The Middle" =
73 - Wéswetx  =
« Last Edit: January 14, 2011, 08:20:22 pm by Pxipxúntil »
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Offline Plumps

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #72 on: January 15, 2011, 05:06:56 am »
Ma Pxipxuntil,

this is quite a mouthful ;) Whilst I think a lot of what you state and ask doesn’t really lie in William’s hands (he’s only the collector of this amazing piece of work), it shows how much we still don’t know about the language.

For the place names of your map, you should probably ask that in a separate thread. It’s not really part of the reference grammar.

It’s been a while since I saw somebody useing the accent ´ for stress marking… Is this common in the Czech subforum?

A few points, maybe William or somebody else will elaborate on the points I left out:


1. Nouns
Using of short and long case affixes is apparently free. But when I try to speak in navi, pronunciation is easier if I use the affixes also accordingly to first letter of next word. For example:
tìngáyur oeyä (better than tìngáyru oeyä)
tìngáyru ngeyä (better than tìngáyur ngeyä)
This is only my opinion.
As you say yourself, it’s personal preference. If you like the -ru forms over the -ur ones with diphthongs, then that’s fine.

The noun tìruséy means "living", noun tìréy "life" and verb rey is "to live". So from the verb táron we have tìtusáron, which means "hunting". So "hunt" is tìtáron? Or should be just táron like in the word for a rite Uniltáron "Dream Hunt"? Or in names like this is just not needed use of the prefix tì-.
tì- is not productive which means we cannot 100% predict what the meaning of *tìtaron will be.

2. Adjectives
If the verb slu is used for adjectives like lu or 'éfu, can I say instead of adjective this below?
Kilván slolú txur. "River became strong. = River is stronger (has intensified)"
Kóak slolú nga. "You became old. = You are older (now)."
First one, I’d say yes. The second one I’m not sure because of the Na’vi’s sense of time of passing. Remember salew for telling the age of a person.

3. Personal Pronouns
Are these forms in other cases correct?
óheìl, ngengáìl, póheìl / pohánìl / pohéìl ??
I’d say ohel, ngengal.
There are no third person ceremonial forms.

And how is the colloquial form of third person in topical? Póri and poéri are clear. Masculin form is poánìri or does exist some shorter version (should be poári)?
No short form, except pori.

And colloquial third person in genitiv are these:
péyä / poánä / poéyä ??
Yes, if you need them. Concensus is once the gender of the subject is clear you don’t need the gendered forms (poan/poe) anymore.

5. Numbers
If for cardinal numbers the question word is polpxáy or holpxáype, then what is the question for ordinal numbers - polpxáyve? pxáyve? vepáy?
We have one instance, Fìtrr lu trrpeve? ‘What day is today?’ But if we could derive something from that, I don’t know.

And the question for multiple numbres (how many times) - álo polpxáy? pxáylo? There are only three forms for multiple numbers ('áwlo, mélo, pxélo). If I want to tell other, I have to use them like a normal adjective with the word álo or are permitted these forms:

tsìlo      "four times"
mrrlo      "five times"
púlo      "six times"

etc.
You can’t. I can’t find the post where that was stated. William will know the link ;)

6. Verbs - Aspect
If the perfect of the verb plltxé is poltxé, how is it with words that have unstressed "rr" - for example krrnékx "consume time". I suppose the right form is kolrrnékx. What about an irregular form kornékx. And similarly for the imperfect should be other irregular form - for example peltxé (right form is perlltxé). This is only my opinion and I can say I like it. Maybe is possible use it in some dialects? And do we know something about dialects?
Your first example is not possible because the infix positions on krrnekx are krrn‹1›‹2›ekx. rll is a valid combination why should it change to el?

7. Verbs - Mood
If I understand it good, there are three forms for imperative.
   Plltxé!
   Pivlltxé!
   Plltxé ko! / Pivlltxé ko!
First two forms are clear. But the third, not so much. I know that Kivä ko! and Makto ko! are right. But first verb is with subjunctive infix and the second no. Is possible to say Kä ko! and Miväkto ko! ? Or how is it? Some verbs take the infix and some no?
Again, personal preference. Whatever you think sounds better in your ear you can use.
I always connect ko with ‘let’s (do something)’. But Frommer stated that also in the ‘Sweet semethings in Na’vi’ of the form mivakto.

9 Modal verbs
What is the modal verb for "have to". Same like "must" zéne?
Yes.

10. Adpositions
For "into, inside" we have némfa. And for "outside" should be ftúmfa?
We have wrrpa for that ;)

I didnt find any adposition "for" ("I have something for you) - what about that?
Because it doesn’t exist as a separate adposition. Sometimes the topical takes that function (I thank you for something).

I do not understand to the adpositions fkip (up among), takíp (from among), tafkíp (from up among). My english-czech dictionnary does not know these, nor the on-line dictionaries.
Think of them as combinations. I always imagined that the Na’vi with their use of ikran and the ability to fly would have a hightened understanding of spacial awareness.
So they can specifically say, ‘I was up among the Floating Mountains with my ikran. I flew from among them to the Tree of Voices, when from up among the clouds I was chased by a Toruk.’

12. Interjection
11.1. We have interjection of good surprise nang, for example in phrase Nang lóra tsko! "What a nice bow!" Can exist some interjection of bad surprise? What about näng, like the infix of negative attitude. I think when a human begginer do not pronounce it well, can change the sense of the phrase and maybe offense the Navi hearer too. I think it happens in some languages on Earth as well.
As far as I remember, nang can only appear at the end of a sentence and mostly in connection with words like nìtxan or fìtxan. So, I think your example with the bow is wrong.

Offline Pxipxúntil

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Re: ANSWERS
« Reply #73 on: January 15, 2011, 05:39:57 pm »
Ma tsmuk, óe si iráyo nìtxan ngéyä aytì'éyngìri. Fìtseng fko plltxé aysänúmeterí a fko stolársìm ta awngéyä káryu álu Pawl. Ha óeru txóa livú. Óe zéne ftivía aytélel fìtséngä to sìltsán. :)

All right, I will create a separated thread about geography, it is good idea :)

No, its not common in czech subforum use the stress markings. Just me personally, I use it, because writing them helps to memorize, where the word is stressed. And czech language use this marking (and few more), so it is very familiar to me :)

Thank you for answers again. I have to add just this for the verb infixes (6.):
About first example - I were little bit blind, I didnt see, that "krr" is something similar to prefix and the true verb is "nekx".
Second example - I know it is valid combination. I did mean something different. When the people speak colloquially they have a habit of shortening. For example in my language "nashledanou" (good bye) is in colloquial speech shortened and the pronunciation is slightly changed to "naschle". I can pronounce every word how it has to be, but I do it not (only in few cases, when the hearer is to me very respected). It was just an opinion, I am not linguistic expert and I do not know, how the form of the navi words could change in colloquial speech. Just I want too much..... :)
« Last Edit: January 15, 2011, 07:09:46 pm by Pxipxúntil »
Srekrr tsatskxétsyìp tolúl tsáwla ayskxéä tìzusúpit...

Offline wm.annis

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Re: SOME QUESTIONS AND PERSONAL OPINIONS ABOUT NAVI GRAMMAR
« Reply #74 on: January 17, 2011, 01:34:48 pm »
Woah.  That's a lot of questions.  Unless they're specifically related to this grammar though, it might be better to put them in a new thread of their own in the future.  The PDF grammar is about what we know — if you can't find an answer in that, then we probably don't know yet. :)

10.5. Adverb nìrángal is used in phrases of wish - the past is expressed with perfect subjunctive (-ilv-), the present with imperfective subujntive (-irv-), but how can I express the future. Just with subjunctive (-iv-)? For example Nìrangal kivä sáwtute! "I wish the sky people will get out." ??

The nìrangal construction only indicates wishes for things which cannot happen, which it is too late to do anything about, or which are not true now, "if only I had listened!" or "if only I knew Swahili!"

We don't have any examples of Frommer just using the verb rangal wish, but some construction with that will be used for a simple wish for the future.
'Awa lì'fya ke tam kawkrr.
A Na'vi Reference Grammar

Offline Pxipxúntil

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Re: Answer
« Reply #75 on: January 18, 2011, 05:57:54 am »
Ngeyä 'éyngìri óe ngáru seiyí iráyo ma tsulfä ta aylì'u apawnlltxé. Fì'ú óeru sayí srung :)
Srekrr tsatskxétsyìp tolúl tsáwla ayskxéä tìzusúpit...

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #76 on: January 20, 2011, 11:49:15 am »
Updated to 1.11.  Notable changes:

  • Several people let me know I forgot pximaw when I had also included pxisre
  • Minor updates in some formatting and a typo
  • Clarified keng, ohengeyä footnote
'Awa lì'fya ke tam kawkrr.
A Na'vi Reference Grammar

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #77 on: February 07, 2011, 05:34:22 pm »
Updated to 1.12.

  • More details on lahe (declension, both adj. and prn.)
  • new adposition few and clarification of ka
  • temporal use of ta (and takrra)
  • modal ftang

I now also include a link to the LaTeX sources on the first post.  That's always been available, just not particularly well advertised.
'Awa lì'fya ke tam kawkrr.
A Na'vi Reference Grammar

Offline Plumps

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #78 on: February 07, 2011, 05:49:38 pm »
Irayo nìtxan, ma tsulfätu lelì’fya 8)

I now also include a link to the LaTeX sources on the first post.  That's always been available, just not particularly well advertised.
What are you getting at? ;) D’you want somebody to start the translation project of the Grammar? :P

Offline wm.annis

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Re: Na'vi Reference Grammar
« Reply #79 on: February 07, 2011, 06:11:10 pm »
What are you getting at? ;) D’you want somebody to start the translation project of the Grammar? :P

Actually, I've been asked for it a few times.  Just this week one of our Polish tsmuktu was thrilled to learn the LaTeX sources were available. :)
'Awa lì'fya ke tam kawkrr.
A Na'vi Reference Grammar

 

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