Author Topic: Barter and Exchange  (Read 745 times)

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Offline Tìtstewan

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Barter and Exchange
« on: March 01, 2014, 04:51:49 am »
Barter and Exchange

Kaltxì, ma eylan.

Well, 2014 has gotten off to a slow start for me. But here’s a brief post, just under the wire for February, with more to follow soon.

This post introduces an important new word: yoa.

yoa (adp-, YO.a) ‘in exchange for’

Yoa is an adp-, i.e. an adposition that does not trigger lenition, used to describe an exchange of items. In particular,
it’s used in talking about trade—trading X for Y. The verbs we typically find in yoa sentences are those relevant for
giving (tìng), receiving (tel), getting or acquiring (kanom), offering (stxenutìng), accepting (mll’an), etc.

A few examples contributed by the LEP will make the use of yoa clear:

         Oel tolìng ngaru tsnganit yoa fkxen.
         ‘I gave you meat in exchange for vegetables.’ OR ‘I traded you meat for vegetables.’
         listen

         Fol kolanom pota aysrokit fayoangyoa.
         ‘They acquired beads from him in exchange for fish.’ OR ‘They bartered fish with him for beads.’
         listen

         Tayel Tsenul pxeswizawti yoa munsnahawnven.
         ‘Tsenu will receive three arrows in exchange for a pair of shoes.’
         listen

The next two examples are a bit more complicated.

Here, one of the “items” participating in the exchange is in fact an action performed by someone—that is, a clause:

         Käsrolìn oel nikroit Peyralur yoa fwa po rol oer.
         ‘I loaned Peyral a hair ornament in exchange for her singing to me.’
         listen

And this example merits careful examination:

         Futa ngata tel pxenyoa srät, mll’eian oel.
         ‘I’m happy to take cloth from you for finished garments.’
         listen

(Question: If A = agent, P = patient or object, and V = verb, what’s the basic word order of this sentence—APV, AVP, PAV, PVA, VAP, or VPA?)

Here ’Rrtamì we can adapt kanom + yoa in a natural way to talk about buying things. After all, when you purchase something, what are you doing
but acquiring it in exchange for money? All we need are some loan words for earthly currency:

txolar (n., TXO.lar) ‘dollar’

ewro (n., EW.ro) ‘euro’

         Poel hawre’tsyìpit kolanom yoa txolar amevol.
         ‘She bought a little cap for $16.’
         listen

         Kìmanom oel mipa eltut lefngap yoa ewro.
         ‘I just bought a new computer.’
         listen

In the previous example, note that even when you don’t specify how much you paid, you still need to mention that you acquired the item in exchange for some kind of currency.

Finally, here’s a little listening exercise. I recently composed a short paragraph in Na’vi for a special occasion. Listen and see if you can figure out what the occasion was.

You’ll need to know one new word:

lawnol (n., LAW.nol) ‘great joy’
listen

Hayalovay!
« Last Edit: March 01, 2014, 12:03:12 pm by Tìtstewan »

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