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Offline Vawmataw

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Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« on: October 02, 2014, 07:13:18 pm »
Karyu Pawl created a couple of new words in this new post from today. I didn't add the audio, unfortunately.
Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
Posted on October 2, 2014 by Pawl   

Kaltxì, ma frapo.

I have some new vocabulary for you today that I think you’ll find useful. Most of these will be in the categories
of obligation and mental health, but there will be some miscellaneous words as well. Thanks as always to our
intrepid LEP members and others for some of the ideas I’ve used here, several of which go back quite a while.

Tson: Obligation

tson (n.) ‘obligation, duty, imposed requirement’

A tson is a duty, task, obligation, etc. that’s imposed on you by someone in a position to do so—that is,
someone with some kind of authority over you or who is higher than you in some relevant hierarchy.
It could be a parent, an older sibling, a boss, a clan leader, Eywa, and so on. The imposer of the
obligation is indicated with ta.

           Za’u tsatson ta Eywa. listen
           ‘That obligation comes from Eywa.’

           Längu oeru tson a fìfmawnit piveng ngar. listen
           ‘I’m sorry that I’m obliged to tell you this news.’

           Lu Neytirir ta Mo’at a tson a kar Tsyeykur ayfya’ot Na’viyä. listen
           ‘Neytiri is under obligation by/from Mo’at to teach Jake the ways of the Na’vi.’

Derived form:

nìtson (adv., nì.TSON) ‘dutifully, as an obligation’

           Pol vewng fratrr ayevengit nìtson. listen
           ‘He observes his duty to care for the kids every day.’

A verb that often accompanies tson is kxìm:

kxìm (vtr.) ‘command, order, assign a task’

As a transitive verb, kxìm always takes tson or a synonym as its direct object; the person being assigned the task is in the dative.

           Ayevengur kxolìm sa’nokìl fìtsonit. listen
           ‘Mother imposed this task on the children’ OR ‘The children were assigned this task by their mother.’

To specify what the task is, you would expect tsonit a. That is in fact what you use, except that over time tsonit a has
contracted to tsonta. Note that tsonta is NOT derived from tson + ta!

tsonta (conj., TSON.ta) ‘to (with kxìm)’

           Ayevengur kxolìm sa’nokìl tsonta payit zamunge. listen
           ‘The children were told by their mother to fetch water.’

(Note in the previous sentence that as long as “their” can be understood from the context, it doesn’t need to be expressed in Na’vi.)

Derived forms:

tìkxìm (n., tì.KXÌM) ‘commanding, ordering, assigning tasks’

           Sìltsana eyktan zene fnivan tìkxìmti. listen
           ‘A good leader must be skilled at assigning tasks.’

tìkxìm si (vin., tì.KXÌM si) ‘be above someone in a hierarchy, be someone’s superior’

           Po tìkxìm si oer. listen
           1. ‘He is above me (in some relevant hierarchy).’
           2. ‘I am under him.’
           3. ‘He has authority over me.’
           4. ‘He is my boss.’

kxìmyu (n., KXÌM.yu) ‘commander, one with authority over another’

           Ngeyä kxìmyu pesu? listen
           ‘Who’s your boss?’

(Note that in the above sentence, lu has been omitted, which is very frequent in conversation with interrogative
words like pesu/tupe, peu/’upe, etc.)

Another way to say the above sentence, of course, is Pesu tìkxìm si ngar?

Finally, note this useful conversational expression:

Kxìmyu nga. ‘Please! Go ahead. You first.’
  listen

Literally, this says, “My commander (is) you.” It’s used as politeness formula to tell someone
(who doesn’t necessarily have to be above you) to go through a door first, take the last piece of teylu, etc.

And speaking of et cetera:

saylahe (adv., say.LA.he) ‘et cetera’

Saylahe is a contraction of sì aylahe ‘and others.’ In writing,
the abbreviation sl. may be used where we would use etc.

Fpomron: Mental health

You’re already familiar with the words having to do with bodily health or well-being:
fpomtokx, lefpomtokx, kelfpomtokx. If we substitute ron for tokx in these words
(ron is shortened from ronsem, ‘mind’), we get the corresponding words for mental health:

fpomron (n., fpom.RON) ‘health or well-being (mental)’

lefpomron (adj., le.fpom.RON) ‘healthy (mentally)’

kelfpomron (adj., kel.fpom.RON) ‘unhealthy (mentally)’

           Pori fpomtokx sì fpomron yo’. listen
           ‘His physical and mental health are perfect.’

           Ke tsun nga tìkxìm sivi oer. Lu nga kelfpomron! listen
           ‘You can’t order me around. You’re mentally unsound!’

Note that the four adjectives lefpomtokx, kelfpomtokx, lefpomron, and kelfpomron are ofp—only for people.
If you want to say that something is unhealthful, you need to use the nfp—not for people—forms, which end in –nga’.

fpomtokxnga’ (adj. nfp, fpom.TOKX.nga’) ‘healthful (physically)’

kefpomtokxnga’ (adj. nfp, ke.fpom.TOKX.nga’) ‘unhealthful (physically)’

fpomronga’ (adj. nfp, fpom.RO.nga’) ‘healthful (mentally)’

kefpomronga’ (adj. nfp, ke.fpom.RO.nga’) ‘unhealthful (mentally)’

(Note that in these words, -ronnga’ à -ronga’. Cf. ingyenga’.)

           Tsat rä’ä yivom! Ke lu fpomtokxnga’. listen
           ‘Don’t eat that. It’s not healthful.’ (I.e., It will make you unhealthy.)

           Ma Entu, fìkem rä’ä sivi; lu kefpomronga’. listen
           ‘Entu, don’t do this; it’s not healthy (mentally).’

           Fwa lawk aysì’efuti ayeylankip lu fpomronga’. listen
           ‘It’s healthy among friends to discuss feelings.’

By the way, we used to have this distinction in English: there was “healthy” for a person
and “healthful” for things that promoted health. So Alice would be healthy, but the salad
she was eating would be healthful. Almost no one seems to observe that distinction anymore;
the word ‘healthful’ has declined precipitously.

A note on pronunciation: When an ejective is immediately followed by a consonant, it can
be hard to pronounce. In many such cases it’s simply pronounced as a “regular” stop,
although there’s no change in the writing. So in particular,

                                  __pxm__  –>   __pm__

                                  __txn__     –>   __tn__

                                  __kxng__  –>   __kng__

in pronunciation only. For example, fpomtokxnga’ is pronounced as if it were simply fpomtoknga’.

Also notice what happens to the pronunciation of kx in fpomtokx sì fpomron in one of the above examples.

And some miscellaneous vocabulary:

srefpìl (vtr., sre.FPÌL—inf. 2, 2) ‘assume’

Srefpìl is stronger than ’en si ‘guess,’ in that it reflects the speaker’s current understanding of a situation from the available data.

           Srefpìl oel futa nga lu toktor Lìvìngsìton. listen
           ‘Doctor Livingstone, I presume.’

(That’s one of the example sentences that came directly from the LEP. I love it!)

Srefpìl may also be used intransitively with tsnì:

           Srefpìl Omatikaya tsnì Tsyeyk kawkrr ke tayätxaw maw kavuk sneyä. listen
           ‘The Omaticaya assumed that Jake would never return after his treachery.’

srefwa (conj., SRE.fwa) ‘before’

This word corresponds to mawfwa ‘after.’ I was surprised to discover it wasn’t in the dictionary, so here it is.

Srefwa oe hum, new pivlltxe. listen
‘Before I leave, I want to speak.’

And finally, a pair of “correlatives”—words that go together in pairs.

ken’aw (adv., ken.’AW) ‘not only’

släkop (adv., SLÄ.kop) ‘but also’

Ken’aw is derived from ke + nì’aw; släkop is obviously slä + kop.
They’re usually used together, although släkop can appear by itself as well.

           Ngeyä tsmuke lu ken’aw lor släkop kanu. listen
           ‘Your sister is not only beautiful but also intelligent.’

           Frakrr lu ngeyä sìpawm ngäzìk släkop letsranten. listen
           ‘Your questions are always difficult but also important.’

If you think these words are very like the corresponding words in English in their structure and use, you’re right.
Needless to say there’s no connection between Na’vi and English (other than a few borrowed terms),
but sometimes things in unrelated languages develop in parallel ways. This is an example of that phenomenon.

That’s it for now. Ayngari sìlpey oe tsnì ken’aw fpomtokx släkop fpomron yivo’. :) Hayalovay!
« Last Edit: October 04, 2014, 03:44:58 pm by Vawmataw »
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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #1 on: October 02, 2014, 09:20:35 pm »
WOU NÌ'AW!!! :o :D

I'll update the Na'viteri files as well as the LEP word lists tomorrow. :)

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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #2 on: October 04, 2014, 01:49:09 pm »
Ma Vawmataw, could you add some fixes Pawl did, and the links to the audio files in your post? :)

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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #3 on: October 04, 2014, 03:00:21 pm »
How can I add the audio files?
The two typos are fixed.
« Last Edit: October 04, 2014, 03:04:11 pm by Vawmataw »
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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #4 on: October 04, 2014, 03:07:06 pm »
Using tools or loooking at the code of the website.

Code: [Select]
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/01-Zau-tsatson.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/02-Längu.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/03-Lu-Neytirir.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/04-Pol-vewng.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/05-Ayevengur.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/06-Ayvengur-2.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/07-Sìltsana.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/08-Po-tìkxìm.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/09-Ngeyä.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/10-Kximyu.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/11-Pori.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/12-Ke-tsun.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/13-Tsat-rää.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/14-Ma-Entu.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/15-Fwa-lawk.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/16-Srefpìl.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/17-Srefpìl-2.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/18-Srefwa.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/19-Ngeyä-tsmuke.mp3
http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/20-Frakrr.mp3

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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #5 on: October 04, 2014, 03:17:32 pm »
I think that I'll be able to finish that tomorrow. My dad will come very soon and I will then maybe need to use the tablet.
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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #6 on: October 04, 2014, 03:31:21 pm »
Oh, never mind. It doesn't work. Next time, I'll let you create the post.
« Last Edit: October 04, 2014, 03:35:20 pm by Vawmataw »
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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #7 on: October 04, 2014, 03:42:06 pm »
Meh, I should be board moderator to fix it for you...

Here is the code, just copy-past it into your:

[b][size=12pt][url=http://naviteri.org/2014/10/tson-si-fpomron-obligation-and-mental-health/]Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health[/url][/size][/b]
Posted on October 2, 2014 by Pawl

[i]Kaltxì, ma frapo.[/i]

I have some new vocabulary for you today that I think you’ll find useful. Most of these will be in the categories
of obligation and mental health, but there will be some miscellaneous words as well. Thanks as always to our
intrepid LEP members and others for some of the ideas I’ve used here, several of which go back quite a while.

Tson: Obligation

[b]tson[/b] (n.) ‘obligation, duty, imposed requirement’

A tson is a duty, task, obligation, etc. that’s imposed on you by someone in a position to do so—that is,
someone with some kind of authority over you or who is higher than you in some relevant hierarchy.
It could be a parent, an older sibling, a boss, a clan leader, Eywa, and so on. The imposer of the
obligation is indicated with [i]ta[/i].

           [b]Za’u tsatson ta Eywa.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/01-Zau-tsatson.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘That obligation comes from Eywa.’

           [b]Längu oeru tson a fìfmawnit piveng ngar.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/02-Längu.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘I’m sorry that I’m obliged to tell you this news.’

           [b]Lu Neytirir ta Mo’at a tson a kar Tsyeykur ayfya’ot Na’viyä.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/03-Lu-Neytirir.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Neytiri is under obligation by/from Mo’at to teach Jake the ways of the Na’vi.’

Derived form:

[b]nìtson[/b] (adv., nì.TSON) ‘dutifully, as an obligation’

           [b]Pol vewng fratrr ayevengit nìtson.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/04-Pol-vewng.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘He observes his duty to care for the kids every day.’

A verb that often accompanies tson is kxìm:

[b]kxìm [/b](vtr.) ‘command, order, assign a task’

As a transitive verb, [i]kxìm[/i] always takes [i]tson[/i] or a synonym as its direct object; the person being assigned the task is in the dative.

           [b]Ayevengur kxolìm sa’nokìl fìtsonit.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/05-Ayevengur.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Mother imposed this task on the children’ OR ‘The children were assigned this task by their mother.’

To specify what the task is, you would expect tsonit a. That is in fact what you use, except that over time tsonit a has
contracted to tsonta. Note that tsonta is NOT derived from tson + ta!

[b]tsonta[/b] (conj., TSON.ta) ‘to (with kxìm)’

           [b]Ayevengur kxolìm sa’nokìl tsonta payit zamunge.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/06-Ayvengur-2.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘The children were told by their mother to fetch water.’

(Note in the previous sentence that as long as “their” can be understood from the context, it doesn’t need to be expressed in Na’vi.)

Derived forms:

tìkxìm (n., tì.KXÌM) ‘commanding, ordering, assigning tasks’

           [b]Sìltsana eyktan zene fnivan tìkxìmti.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/07-Sìltsana.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘A good leader must be skilled at assigning tasks.’

[b]tìkxìm si[/b] (vin., tì.KXÌM si) ‘be above someone in a hierarchy, be someone’s superior’

           [b]Po tìkxìm si oer.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/08-Po-tìkxìm.mp3]listen[/audio]
           1. ‘He is above me (in some relevant hierarchy).’
           2. ‘I am under him.’
           3. ‘He has authority over me.’
           4. ‘He is my boss.’

[b]kxìmyu[/b] (n., KXÌM.yu) ‘commander, one with authority over another’

           [b]Ngeyä kxìmyu pesu?[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/09-Ngeyä.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Who’s your boss?’

(Note that in the above sentence, lu has been omitted, which is very frequent in conversation with interrogative
words like [i]pesu/tupe, peu/’upe[/i], etc.)

Another way to say the above sentence, of course, is [i]Pesu tìkxìm si ngar[/i]?

Finally, note this useful conversational expression:

[b]Kxìmyu nga.[/b] ‘Please! Go ahead. You first.’
 [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/10-Kximyu.mp3]listen[/audio]

Literally, this says, “My commander (is) you.” It’s used as politeness formula to tell someone
(who doesn’t necessarily have to be above you) to go through a door first, take the last piece of teylu, etc.

And speaking of et cetera:

[b]saylahe[/b] (adv., say.LA.he) ‘et cetera’

[i]Saylahe[/i] is a contraction of [i]sì aylahe[/i] ‘and others.’ In writing,
the abbreviation [i]sl.[/i] may be used where we would use etc.

Fpomron: Mental health

You’re already familiar with the words having to do with bodily health or well-being:
[i]fpomtokx, lefpomtokx, kelfpomtokx.[/i] If we substitute ron for tokx in these words
(ron is shortened from ronsem, ‘mind’), we get the corresponding words for mental health:

[b]fpomron[/b] (n., fpom.RON) ‘health or well-being (mental)’

[b]lefpomron[/b] (adj., le.fpom.RON) ‘healthy (mentally)’

[b]kelfpomron[/b] (adj., kel.fpom.RON) ‘unhealthy (mentally)’

           [b]Pori fpomtokx sì fpomron yo’.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/11-Pori.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘His physical and mental health are perfect.’

           [b]Ke tsun nga tìkxìm sivi oer. Lu nga kelfpomron![/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/12-Ke-tsun.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘You can’t order me around. You’re mentally unsound!’

Note that the four adjectives [i]lefpomtokx, kelfpomtokx, lefpomron[/i], and [i]kelfpomron[/i] are ofp—only for people.
If you want to say that something is unhealthful, you need to use the nfp—not for people—forms, which end in [i]–nga[/i]’.

[b]fpomtokxnga’[/b] (adj. nfp, fpom.TOKX.nga’) ‘healthful (physically)’

[b]kefpomtokxnga’[/b] (adj. nfp, ke.fpom.TOKX.nga’) ‘unhealthful (physically)’

[b]fpomronga’[/b] (adj. nfp, fpom.RO.nga’) ‘healthful (mentally)’

[b]kefpomronga’[/b] (adj. nfp, ke.fpom.RO.nga’) ‘unhealthful (mentally)’

(Note that in these words, [i]-ronnga’ [/i]à [i]-ronga’[/i]. Cf. [i]ingyenga’[/i].)

           [b]Tsat rä’ä yivom! Ke lu fpomtokxnga’.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/13-Tsat-rää.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Don’t eat that. It’s not healthful.’ (I.e., It will make you unhealthy.)

           [b]Ma Entu, fìkem rä’ä sivi; lu kefpomronga’.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/14-Ma-Entu.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Entu, don’t do this; it’s not healthy (mentally).’

           [b]Fwa lawk aysì’efuti ayeylankip lu fpomronga’.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/15-Fwa-lawk.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘It’s healthy among friends to discuss feelings.’

By the way, we used to have this distinction in English: there was “healthy” for a person
and “healthful” for things that promoted health. So Alice would be healthy, but the salad
she was eating would be healthful. Almost no one seems to observe that distinction anymore;
the word ‘healthful’ has declined precipitously.

A note on pronunciation: When an ejective is immediately followed by a consonant, it can
be hard to pronounce. In many such cases it’s simply pronounced as a “regular” stop,
although there’s no change in the writing. So in particular,

                                  __pxm__  –>   __pm__

                                  __txn__     –>   __tn__

                                  __kxng__  –>   __kng__

in pronunciation only. For example, [i]fpomtokxnga’[/i] is pronounced as if it were simply [i]fpomtoknga’[/i].

Also notice what happens to the pronunciation of kx in [i]fpomtokx sì fpomron[/i] in one of the above examples.

And some miscellaneous vocabulary:

[b]srefpìl[/b] (vtr., sre.FPÌL—inf. 2, 2) ‘assume’

[i]Srefpìl[/i] is stronger than [i]’en si[/i] ‘guess,’ in that it reflects the speaker’s current understanding of a situation from the available data.

           [b]Srefpìl oel futa nga lu toktor Lìvìngsìton.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/16-Srefpìl.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Doctor Livingstone, I presume.’

(That’s one of the example sentences that came directly from the LEP. I love it!)

[i]Srefpìl[/i] may also be used intransitively with [i]tsnì[/i]:

           [b]Srefpìl Omatikaya tsnì Tsyeyk kawkrr ke tayätxaw maw kavuk sneyä.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/17-Srefpìl-2.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘The Omaticaya assumed that Jake would never return after his treachery.’

[b]srefwa[/b] (conj., SRE.fwa) ‘before’

This word corresponds to mawfwa ‘after.’ I was surprised to discover it wasn’t in the dictionary, so here it is.

[b]Srefwa oe hum, new pivlltxe.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/18-Srefwa.mp3]listen[/audio]
‘Before I leave, I want to speak.’

And finally, a pair of “correlatives”—words that go together in pairs.

[b]ken’aw[/b] (adv., ken.’AW) ‘not only’

[b]släkop[/b] (adv., SLÄ.kop) ‘but also’

[b]Ken’aw[/b] is derived from [i]ke + nì’aw[/i]; släkop is obviously [i]slä + kop[/i].
They’re usually used together, although släkop can appear by itself as well.

           [b]Ngeyä tsmuke lu ken’aw lor släkop kanu.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/19-Ngeyä-tsmuke.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Your sister is not only beautiful but also intelligent.’

           [b]Frakrr lu ngeyä sìpawm ngäzìk släkop letsranten.[/b] [audio=http://naviteri.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/20-Frakrr.mp3]listen[/audio]
           ‘Your questions are always difficult but also important.’

If you think these words are very like the corresponding words in English in their structure and use, you’re right.
Needless to say there’s no connection between Na’vi and English (other than a few borrowed terms),
but sometimes things in unrelated languages develop in parallel ways. This is an example of that phenomenon.

That’s it for now. [i]Ayngari sìlpey oe tsnì ken’aw fpomtokx släkop fpomron yivo’. :) Hayalovay![/i]

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Offline Vawmataw

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Re: Tson sì Fpomron—Obligation and Mental Health
« Reply #8 on: October 04, 2014, 03:45:58 pm »
Better. Irayo nìtxan ma Tìstewan. Sorry for all this work.
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