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Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« on: February 15, 2012, 03:16:53 pm »
Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
An extensive, simplified rundown of All current affixes.
Because the original thread was from December 2009.

Updated: 2 September 2014

Notes:

Any adposition (word marked as adp. in the dictionary) may become a suffix on the end of any noun. Same with and to. Neither may become a prefix, however. Separate before, OR attached after. Example: Eywa hu nga. = Eywa ngahu.

+ instead of - means causes lenition.

Productive means "this can be added to any word (or just any word of a certain part of speech, for example, just any noun or just any verb) at speaker's will to create a new word with an obvious new meaning".

Non-productive means "this can not be added to any word at speaker's will, so any words with this thing must be found in the dictionary as-is".

Lenition: words that start with a certain letter change to start with a different letter.
Lenition chart:
    if word starts with this letter -> change the first letter to this letter
        px -> p
        kx -> k
        tx -> t
        p -> f
        k -> h
        t -> s
        ts -> s
        '  -> goes away

Verb infix positions:

        t<0><1>ar<2>on (two syllable regular)
        <0><1>om<2>um (two syllable starts with vowel)
        srung s<0><1><2>i (si verb)
        yomt<0><1><2>ìng (compound, head last)
        n<0><1><2>ewomum (compound, head first)

Modal verbs are those marked as vm. or vim. or vtrm. in the dictionary.


All Current Productive Prefixes :

    For nouns or pronouns only :
       
        fì- this. Used in order to say "This __<noun>__...".
        tsa- that. Used in order to say "That __<noun>__...".
        me+ Dual. Two of something.
        pxe+ Trial. Three of something.
        ay+ Plural. More than three or some unknown number of something.
        fay+  these. Used in order to say "These __<noun>s__...".
        tsay+ those. Used in order to say "Those __<noun>s__...".
        fne- Type of. Used in order to say "Type of __<noun>__".
        sna- Used to group living things other than people. Example: snanantang - pack of viperwolves
        munsna- Used to say a pair of something. Example: munsnahawnven - a pair of shoes
        fra- Every. Used in order to say "every __<noun>__".
        fray+ All of these. Combination of fra- and ay+. "All of these __<noun>s__"
        pe+ What. Turns a statement into A QUESTION. Used in order to say "What __<noun>__..?".
        pem+ What two. Turns a statement into A QUESTION (dual). This is used to ask "What two <noun>s?".
        pep+ What three. Turns a statement into A QUESTION (trial). This is used to ask "What three <noun>s?".
        pay+ What (plural). Turns a statement into A QUESTION. Used in order to say "what __<noun>s__..?".

    For verbs only :

        tsuk- Able. Used in order to say "<verb>able".
        ketsuk- Opposite of tsuk-. Used in order to say "un<verb>able".

    For adjectives only :

        a- This means the adjective is paired with the noun directly before it (to the left).
        nì- This is productive to turn an adjective into an adverb. It's similar to English -ly ending.
            Note on adj. starting with e: If the e is stressed, drop ì from -. (E.g.: netrìp "luckily, happily") Else, keep ì and drop e. (E.g.: nìyawr "correctly, rightly")
        ke- This is used to create a negative or opposite adjective. E.g.: teng "same, equal" - keteng "different, not equal" / eyawr "correct" - keyawr "incorrect"
             Important! Adjectives that already have a negative counterpart in the dictionary should not be used with ke-! Just as in English we don't have *unyoung, *unold, *unbig.
             Note: For adjectives with le- merges ke- with le- to kel- -> lekin "necessary" - kelkin "unnecessary".
                          Attention: *kele- > kel-, unless it would create an impermissible consonant cluster, in which case it remains kele-. E.g.: kelemweypey "impatient"

    For adverbs only :

        nìk- Created by nì- + ke- is used to create negative adverbs.
             Examples: kelkin "unnecessarily" <- In this example nì- is added to a negative adjective to create a negative adverb.
                            nìktungzup "carefully, firmly" <- Here was nì- added to a negative verb: nì- + (ke + tungzup "drop, let fall") = nìktungzup The "e" drops away.

All Current Productive Suffixes :

    For nouns or pronouns only :

        Cases :

            -l This goes on the noun who is verbing something (subject). Don't use this if it ends with a consonant.
            -ìl The same thing as -l. Use this instead of -l if the noun ends with a consonant.
            -it This goes on the noun that the subject is verbing (direct object). Use this instead of -t if word ends with consonant.
               Don't use this if word ends in a vowel or in ey.
            -ti Same as -it. May be used regardless of what the word ends with. Example: sa’nokit, sempulti.
            -t Same as -ti and -it. Don't use this if the word ends with a consonant. Use this if word ends with ey.
            -ru This goes on the noun to whom or for whom the subject is verbing (indirect object).
               Don't use on words ending with consonant.
            -ur Same as -ru. Use this instead of -r if word ends with consonant. Don't use on words ending with ew.
            -r Same as -ru and -ur. Don't use this if the word ends with a consonant. Use this if word ends with ew.
            -yä This goes on the noun to form a genitive. It can be possessive, Similar to the English -'s ending. It can also mean "of" e.g. "The <noun> of the <noun>".
            -y Short form of . Rare and colloquial. Used on pronouns. Don't use if word ends with consonant.
            same as -yä and -y. Use this for nouns ending in consonants o or u.
            -ri This goes on the topic noun. Topics are first in the sentence and after it comes a comment.
               Used commonly instead of -yä or for inalienable possession,
               e.g. with body parts. Don't use on words ending with consonant.
            -ìri Same as -ri but for words ending with a consonant.

        Other noun/pronoun-only suffixes :

            -ya Same meaning as ma. Can only be used with singular collective nouns. e.g. family, group, etc. It's a rare suffix.
            -fkeyk State of. Used to say "the state of the__<noun>__".
            -o Indefinite some. Used to say "Some__<nouns>". Also used on time-related words to say "for some <unit of time>" or "<unit of time> long".
               Example: "zìsìto amrr" = "5 years long"
            -pe Same as pe+. Use this for more variation or to avoid lenition.
            -tsyìp Mini/Diminutive. Used to say "dear little __<noun>__" or "mini __<noun>__". Can also make a new meaning
               like this example, utral = tree, utraltsyìp = bush.
            -am previous. This goes on 'time nouns' such as trr (day), kintrr (week), etc. to make it "yesterday", "last week", etc.
            -ay next. This goes on 'time nouns' such as trr (day), kintrr (week), etc. to make it "tomorrow", "next week", etc.

    For numbers only :

        -ve Ordinal marker. Similar to English st, nd, rd, th.

    For adjectives only :

        -a This means the adjective is paired with the noun directly after it (to the right)

    Only for colour words :

        -pin Creates colour nouns. Example: rimpin (the color yellow)
             Note: If before -pin is a word that end with a letter n, the letter n becomes m. Example: ean (blue, green) + -pin = eampin (the colour blue, green)

    For verbs only :

        -yu Typically turns a verb into a noun who is a doer of that verb. e.g taron = hunt, taronyu = Hunter.
        -tswo Turns a verb into a noun which means the ability to do that verb. e.g.
             Example: hefi = smell, hefitswo = ability to smell (sense of smell).

All Verb Infixes :

    Pre-first position :

        <äp> Reflexive. Using this means the subject is doing the verb to his/her self. The verb then can only take one subject which gets no case marks.
             Verbs with <äp> are always intransitive.
             Example: Poan y<äp>ur. = He washes himself.
        <eyk> Causitive. This leaves a subject-noun either:
                   - A) another noun, to do something
                   - B) a noun with another noun to make something.
             Verbs with ‹eyk› are always transitive.
             Example: nga-l oe-ti h<eyk>ahaw. = You cause/make me to sleep. Oe-l nga-ru po-ti t<eyk>aron. = I cause/make you to hunt him.

    First position :

       Tenses (having to do with time) :

            <am> Past
            <ìm> Recent past
            <ìy> Near future
            <ìsy> Near future with determination of the speaker to bring the situation about.
            <ay> Future
            <asy> Future with determination of the speaker to bring the situation about.
       
        Aspects (nothing to do with time) :

            <ol> Perfective (action is completed)
            <er> Imperfective (action is incomplete)

        Combining tense and aspect :

            <alm> Past perfective. Action has happened in the past. -> e.g. Oe y<alm>om. ~ I had eaten.
            <ìlm> Recent past perfective. Action has just happened recently. -> e.g. Oe y<ìlm>om. ~ I have just eaten.
            <ìly> Near future perfective. Action will have been done soon. -> e.g. Oe y<ìly>om. - I will soon be eating.
            <aly> Future perfective. Action will have been done. -> e.g. Oe y<aly>om. - I will have eaten.
            <arm> Past imperfective. Action was being done in the past. -> e.g. Oe y<arm>om. - I was eating.
            <ìrm> Recent past imperfective. Action was just being done recently. -> e.g. Oe y<ìrm>om. - I was just eating.
            <ìry> Near future imperfective. Action is about to be happening soon. -> e.g. Oe y<ìry>om. - I will soon be eating..
            <ary> Future imperfective. Action will be happening. -> e.g. Oe y<ary>om. - I will be eating.

        Subjunctive :

            <iv> A) Required in secondary verbs which come after modal verbs. e.g. Oe zene y<iv>om. = I must eat.
                   B) Used with wishes, hopes, etc. This includes verbs appearing after fte and fteke.
                   C) Used optionally in commands.

        Combining Subjunctive with Tense :

            <imv> Past subjunctive.
            <iyev> or <ìyev> Future subjunctive.

        Combining Subjunctive with Aspect :

            <ilv> Perfective Subjunctive.
            <irv> Imperfective Subjunctive.
             Either of the above are mostly only used in I wish noun were verbing or I wish noun had verbed. (nìrangal ...).
       
        Participles :

            <us> Active Participle. This turns a verb into an attributive adjective in the form "The Verbing noun...".
                   Example: H<us>ahaw-a nantang = A sleeping Viperwolf.
            <awn> Passive Participle. This turns a verb into an attributive adjective in the form "The Verbed noun...".
                   Example: Palulukan a-t<awn>aron lehrrap ke lu = A hunted thanator is not dangerous.

    Second Position :

        <ei> This means that whoever speaking has a positive attitude/mood/feeling toward what's being said.
        <äng> This means whoever is speaking has a negative attitude/mood/feeling toward what's being said.
             It can turn into <eng> when followed by the letter i. Example: tsap'alute s<eng>i = tsap'alute s<äng>i
        <uy> Honorific. Formal, ceremonial, and rarely used.
        <ats> Inferential. Used when making assumptions.
             Example: Pol fìtsengit ke tok. Kelkuti t<ats>ok = He is not here. (He) must be home.

Gerund / Noun creation

        tì- + <us> With this prefix and infix verbs can be transformed to productive nouns (Gerund).
             From si constructed verbs, gerunds can not be derived. E.g. tswayon (to fly) = tswusayon (the fly)




All Current Non-Productive Affixes :

    Prefixes :

        sä- instrumental noun deriving affix. numeri oe nume. I learn the teaching.
        tì- noun deriving affix. ngay sìltsan lu. The truth is good.
        le- adjective deriving affix. Poan lehrrap lu. He is dangerous.
        kaw- not one deriving affix. Oe kawkrr ke kamä. I never went.

    Suffixes :

        -an masculine suffix for certain nouns. Example: Poan täftxuyu lu. He is a weaver.
        -e feminine suffix for certain nouns: Poe taronyu lu. She is a hunter.
        -vi partitive relationship marker: Oe nume mì numtsengvi. I learn in the classroom.
        -lo multiplicative number suffix for ’aw, mune, pxey: ’Awlo oe ramol. Once I sang.
        -nay creates a new noun that is related to the original by being a step down in some relevant heirarchy - size, rank, accomplishment, etc.: Example, ikran -> ikranay
        -nga’ adjective deriving affix. ’Akra apaynga’ lu. It is moist soil.
        -tu person noun from non-verbal stem deriving affix. Oe reltseotu lu. I am an artist.
        -sena  X-sena is an object that specifically carries or contains X, like this example: paysena water container.



Edits:
 - fixed some lines and formattings
 - added all not productive affixes to complete this guide
 - added new suffix in not productive section
 - added in notes section what productive and non-productive means
 - added hì-,hì'- to non-productive prefixes
 - some visual edits for consistency
 - removed hì'-
 - added -pin for color words only
« Last Edit: May 02, 2016, 01:54:33 pm by Tirea Aean »

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Offline Kamean

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #1 on: February 15, 2012, 04:09:18 pm »
Great work ma Tirea. :)
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Offline Tirea Aean

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #2 on: February 15, 2012, 04:23:20 pm »
Tstunwi. :) It took me a long time to type all this out on mobile devices.

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #3 on: February 15, 2012, 04:39:00 pm »
Kea tìkin. :)
Quote
It took me a long time to type all this out on mobile devices.
Your computer is not working? :o
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #4 on: February 15, 2012, 04:40:46 pm »
I  was away from home. Something to know about me: A VAST percentage of my posts here are from an Android phone or tablet.  :D

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #5 on: February 15, 2012, 04:56:36 pm »
Tslolam :)
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #6 on: February 15, 2012, 04:58:02 pm »
So, comments and possible corrections are welcome. Karma to the corrector as always. ;)

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #7 on: February 15, 2012, 05:17:44 pm »
I don't see errors or typos. :D
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #8 on: February 15, 2012, 11:29:14 pm »
Sìltsan :) Only a few keyey:

<ats> is missing from second-position infixes.
-vi and -nga' aren't productive.
-tu is only productive on nouns, not mostly non-verbs.

[img]http://swokaikran.skxawng.lu/sigbar/nwotd.php?p=2b[/img]

ÌTXTSTXRR!!

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #9 on: February 15, 2012, 11:37:33 pm »
Quote
<iv> A) required in secondary verbs which come after modal verbs. e.g. Oe zene yivom=I must eat. B)used with wishes, hopes, etc. C) used optionally in commands. D) sensible way to translate "would verb"

Txantsana tìkangkemvi. :)

Edit: I forgot to ask about "fte" and "fteke". :-[
« Last Edit: February 15, 2012, 11:56:43 pm by Alyara Arati »
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #10 on: February 15, 2012, 11:52:52 pm »
Maybe one of these days wm.annis could make another thread: Na'vi Linguistics: Good <iv>ning :)

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #11 on: February 16, 2012, 02:45:08 am »
Very good overview!
There are also special forms for "these two/three X": fìme+/fìpxe+ and "those two/three X" tsame+/tsapxe+, if they can be count as standard prefixes (in fact it is combination, see horen leNa'vi 3.3.7.)
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #12 on: February 16, 2012, 04:47:11 am »
Some things I noticed:

  • ketsuk-: missing opposite of tsuk-
  • -ti, -ru: can be used with both vowel-final and consonant-final words (clarification)
  • -yä, : this is genitive, not possessive; the latter is a common but not exclusive use of the former
  • -o: also means "for (duration)" when referring to spans of time
  • ‹eng›: optional variant of ‹äng› when followed by i

  • nì-: productive on adjectives
  • -am, -ay: how productive are these?


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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #13 on: February 16, 2012, 08:32:49 am »
Thanks all for help. Karma to all who made suggestions. Wasnt sure of productivity of -am and -ay so left them out for now.

POST HAS BEEN EDITED

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #14 on: February 16, 2012, 09:48:35 am »
Quote
<ats> Inferential. Uled when making assumptions e.g. Pol fìtsengit ke tok. Kelkuti t<ats>ok=He is not here. (he) must be home
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #15 on: February 16, 2012, 09:54:14 am »
Wiya. Fixed.

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Offline Lance R. Casey

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #16 on: February 16, 2012, 10:54:01 am »
More nits: ketsuk is lacking a hyphen and nì- is in the wrong section.

// Lance R. Casey

Offline Tirea Aean

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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #17 on: February 16, 2012, 11:49:25 am »
More nits: ketsuk is lacking a hyphen



Fixed.

Quote
and nì- is in the wrong section.

Where should it go?

kelku ikranä a hawnventi yom podcast (na'vi-only): https://tirearadio.com/podcast
Learn Na'vi Discord Chat: https://discord.gg/WF6qcmv

Offline Lance R. Casey

  • Ikran Makto
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Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #18 on: February 16, 2012, 12:11:01 pm »
Quote
and nì- is in the wrong section.

Where should it go?

Prefixes.

// Lance R. Casey

Offline Tirea Aean

  • The Blue One
  • Olo'eyktan Anawm
  • Palulukan Makto
  • *****
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  • nv Eywa'eveng
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  • Oeri ran lu srung
    • Tirea Aean
Re: Easy Guide to Na'vi Prefixes, Infixes, and Suffixes II
« Reply #19 on: February 16, 2012, 12:16:00 pm »
Quote
and nì- is in the wrong section.

Where should it go?

Prefixes.

Oh derp!

Fixed. :-[

kelku ikranä a hawnventi yom podcast (na'vi-only): https://tirearadio.com/podcast
Learn Na'vi Discord Chat: https://discord.gg/WF6qcmv

 

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