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Offline Tìtstewan

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The Pronoun Guide
« on: August 27, 2013, 12:40:15 pm »
The Pronoun Guide
A detailed guide about the pronouns of the Na'vi language.


Kaltxì ma frapo ulte zola'u nìprrte' fìtsenge!

Well, a guide like this is needed here, it really is. :P So I hope you’ll enjoy it. :)



The Pronouns

Like in English the Na'vi also have pronouns for people or living things which they represent.
There are the basic forms I, you, he / she, it from which all pronouns may be formed.
Note that the Na'vi pronouns have different plurals and they also distinguish whether the listener
is included in the action or not.

The Basic Pronouns
________________________
oeI
ngayou
pohe or she
poeshe
poanhe
fkoone, they
tsa'u, tsawthat (thing)
____

-e is a female suffix.*
-an is a male suffix.*
_______
The Count
________________________
me+two, dual
pxe+three, trial
ay+plural
Examples
________________________
meyayotwo birds
pxelì'uthree words
ayutraltrees
mengayou two
pxefothree of she/he (lenited form of po!)
ayoewe all
Note: More examples about the the dual, trial and plurals please read below.

Person
      Singular     
      Dual     
      Trial     
      Plural





1st (exclusive)
oe
moe
pxoe
ayoe
1st (inclusive)
-
oeng
pxoeng
ayoeng, awnga
2nd
nga
menga
pxenga
aynga
3rd (animate)
po
mefo
pxefo
ayfo, fo
3rd (inanimate)
tsa’u, tsaw
mesa’u
pxesa’u
aysa’u, sa’u
reflexive
sno
-
-
-







Inclusive and Exclusive

Inclusive
  • This means the inclusion of the listener. If you write e.g oeng it means you and the listener.
    If you look closer at oeng, it contains oe and nga - I and you.
    Oeng yerom means We both are eating - you and the listener are eating together.

Exclusive
  • This means the exclusion of the listener. If you use moe, you exclude the listener from the action.
    In the word moe, a form of nga is missing, hence it will be like this example:
    Moe yerom - We both are eating, but not you (listener), to whom I tell this.

Examples
           Pxoe tswerayon ayikranfa. --> We three (not you) are flying by help of the banshees.
           Fìtstal lu oengaru --> This knife belongs to us. (you and your listener).
           Poanit tse'a oengal --> We (you and your listener) see him.


Honorific and Ceremonial

Of course, the Na'vi have a honorific/ceremonial form of the pronouns.

      Singular     
      Dual     
      Trial     
      Plural     





1st (exclusive)
ohe
mohe
pxohe
ayohe
2nd
ngenga
mengenga
pxengenga
ayngenga





Note: Even in careful speech, oeru and oehu are pronounced "weru" and "wehu."


All Pronouns and their Cases

Following are all known pronouns, their cases and short forms,
but first...
...Key:
SUB = Subjective
AGE = Agentive
PAT = Patientive
DAT = Dative
GEN = Genitive
TOP = Topic
_______Pxoengat tsere'a yayol.

Note:
  • The underlined letters in the words mean the stress.
  • The blue-colored letters are the case suffixes.
    Read more about the cases HERE.
  • Big-written letter in the topic examples don't mean any stressing / emphasis.

The Pronouns

1st (exclusive)
Case
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
oe
moe
pxoe
ayoe
Oe uvan seri.
Moe uvan seri.
Pxoe uvan seri.
Ayoe uvan seri.





AGE
oel
moel
pxoel
ayoel
Oel tse'a fìyayot.
Moel tsere'a fìyayot.
Pxoel tsere'a fìyayot.
Ayoel tsere'a fìyayot.





PAT
oeti, oet
moeti, moet
pxoeti, pxoet
ayoeti, ayoet
Yayol tsere'a oeti.
Yayol tsere'a moeti.
Yayol tsere'a pxoeti.
Yayol tsere'a ayoeti.





DAT
oeru, oer
moeru, moer
pxoeru, pxoer
ayoeru, ayoer
Poel zamunge oeru 'uti.
Poel zamunge moeru 'uti.
Poel zamunge pxoeru 'uti.
Poel zamunge ayoeru 'uti.





GEN
oe
moe
pxoe
ayoe
Oeyä kelku.
Moeyä mehelku.
Pxoeyä pxehelku.
Ayoeyä ayhelku.





TOP
oeri
moeri
pxoeri
ayoeri
Oeri zekwä.
Moeri mezekwä.
Pxoeri pxezekwä.
Ayoeri ayzekwä.







1st (inclusive)
Case
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
No singular
oeng
pxoeng
ayoeng*, awnga
Oeng uvan seri.
Pxoeng uvan seri.
Ayoeng uvan seri.





AGE
No singular
oengal
pxoengal
ayoengal, awngal
Oengal tsere'a fìyayot.
Pxoengal tsere'a fìyayot.
Ayoengal tsere'a fìyayot.





PAT
No singular
oengati, oengat
pxoengati,
pxoengat
ayoengati, awngat
Yayol tsere'a oengati.
Yayol tsere'a pxoengati.
Yayol tse'a ayoengati.





DAT
No singular
oengaru, oengar
pxoengaru,
pxoengar
ayoengaru, awngaru,
ayoengar, awngar
Poel zamunge oengaru 'uti.
Poel zamunge pxoengaru 'uti.
Poel zamunge ayoengaru 'uti.





GEN
No singular
oenge
pxoenge
ayoenge, awnge
Oengeyä mehelku.
Pxoengeyä pxehelku
Ayoengeyä ayhelku





TOP
No singular
oengari
pxoengari
ayoengari, awngari
Oengari mezekwä.
Pxoengari pxezekwä.
Ayoengari ayzekwä.







2nd
Case
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
nga
menga
pxenga
aynga
Nga uvan si.
Menga uvan si.
Pxenga uvan si.
Aynga uvan si.





AGE
ngal
mengal
pxengal
ayngal
Ngal tse'a fìyayot.
Mengal tse'a fìyayot.
Pxengal tse'a fìyayot.
Ayngal tse'a fìyayot.





PAT
ngati, ngat
mengati, mengat
pxengati, pxengat
ayngati, ayngat
Yayol tsere'a ngati.
Yayol tsere'a mengati.
Yayol tsere'a pxengati.
Yayol tsere'a ayngati.





DAT
ngaru, ngar
mengaru, mengar
pxengaru, pxengar
ayngaru, ayngar
Poel zamunge ngaru 'uti.
Poel zamunge mengaru 'uti.
Poel zamunge pxengaru 'uti.
Poel zamunge ayngaru 'uti.





GEN
nge
menge
pxenge
aynge
Ngeyä kelku.
Mengeyä mehelku.
Pxengeyä pxehelku.
Ayngeyä ayhelku.





TOP
ngari
mengari
pxengari
ayngari
Ngari zekwä.
Mengari mezekwä.
Pxengari pxezekwä.
Ayngari ayzekwä.







3rd (animate)
Case
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
po
mefo
pxefo
ayfo, fo
Po uvan si.
Mefo uvan si.
Pxefo uvan si.
Ayfo uvan si.





AGE
pol
mefol
pxefol
ayfol, fol
Pol tse'a fìyayot.
Mefol tse'a fìyayot.
Pxefol tse'a fìyayot.
Ayfol tse'a fìyayot.





PAT
poti, pot
mefoti, mefot
pxefoti, pxefot
ayfoti, foti
ayfot, fot
Yayol tsere'a poti.
Yayol tsere'a mefoti.
Yayol tsere'a pxefoti.
Yayol tsere'a ayfoti.





DAT
poru, por
meforu, mefor
pxeforu, pxefor
ayforu, foru
ayfor, for
Poel zamunge poru 'uti.
Poel zamunge meforu 'uti.
Poel zamunge pxeforu 'uti.
Poel zamunge ayforu 'uti.





GEN
pe
mefe
pxefe
ayfe, fe
Peyä kelku.
Mefeyä mehelku.
Pxefeyä pxehelku.
Ayfeyä ayhelku.





TOP
pori
mefori
pxefori
ayfori, fori
Pori zekwä.
Mefori mezekwä.
Pxefori pxezekwä.
Ayfori ayzekwä.





« Last Edit: March 20, 2016, 09:16:00 am by Tìtstewan »

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The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #1 on: August 27, 2013, 12:41:10 pm »
3rd (animate and singular only)
Case
Male
Female
Indefinite




SUB
poan
poe
fko
Poan tìran.
Poe tìran.
Fko tìran.




AGE
poanìl
poel
fkol
Poanìl yur fìpayoangit.
Poel yur fìpayoangit.
Fkol yur fìpayoangit.




PAT
poanit, poanti
poeti, poet
fkoti, fkot
Poanit teraron oel.
Poet teraron oel.
Fkot teraron oel.




DAT
poanur
poeru, poer
fkoru, fkor
Oel zamunge poanur 'uti.
Oel zamunge poeru 'uti.
Oel zamunge fkoru 'uti.




GEN
poanä
poe
fke
Poanä tsko.
Poeyä tsko.
Fkeyä tsko.




TOP
poanìri
poeri
fkori
Poanìri kinam.
Poeri kinam.
Fkori kinam.






3rd (inanimate)
Case
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
tsa'u, tsaw
mesa'u
pxesa'u
aysa'u, sa'u, saw
Tsa'u kekem ke si.
Mesa'u kekem ke si.
Pxesa'u kekem ke si.
Aysa'u kekem ke si.





AGE
tsa'ul, tsal
mesa'ul
pxesa'ul
aysa'ul, sa'ul
Tsa'ul tsere'a awngat.
Mesa'ul tsere'a awngat.
Pxesa'ul tsere'a awngat.
Aysa'ul tse'a awngat.





PAT
tsa'ut, tsat
mesa'ut
pxesa'ut
aysa'ut, sa'ut
Tsa'ut tse'a awngal.
Mesa'ut tse'a awngal.
Pxesa'ut tse'a awngal.
Aysa'ut tse'a awngal.





DAT
tsa'uru, tsa'ur, tsar
mesa'uru, mesa'ur
pxesa'uru, pxesa'ur
aysa'uru, aysa'ur
sa'uru, sa'ur
Ngal zamunge tsa'uru 'uti.
Ngal zamunge mesa'uru 'uti.
Ngal zamunge pxesa'uru 'uti.
Ngal zamunge aysa'uru 'uti.





GEN
tsa'uä, tseyä
mesa'uä
pxesa'uä
aysa'uä, sa'uä
Tsa'uä 'opin lu lor.
Mesa'uä 'opin lu lor.
Pxesa'uä 'opin lu lor.
Aysa'uä 'opin lu lor.





TOP
tsa'uri, tsari
mesa'uri
pxesa'uri
aysa'uri, sa'uri
Tsa'uri lolu lehrrap.
Mesa'uri lolu lehrrap.
Pxesa'uri lolu lehrrap.
Aysa'uri lolu lehrrap.







The Ceremonial Pronoun
Here I don't add text examples, because they are similar like the non-ceremonial forms above.


1st (exclusive, ceremonial)
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
ohe
mohe
pxohe
ayohe





AGE
ohel
mohel
pxohel
ayohel





PAT
oheti, ohet
moheti, mohet
pxoheti, pxohet
ayoheti, ayohet





DAT
oheru, oher
moheru, moher
pxoheru, pxoher
ayoheru, ayoher





GEN
ohe
mohe
pxohe
ayohe





TOP
oheri
moheri
pxoheri
ayoheri





____________________________________________________________

2nd (ceremonial)
Singular
Dual
Trial
Plural





SUB
ngenga
mengenga
pxengenga
ayngenga





AGE
ngengal
mengengal
pxengengal
ayngengal





PAT
ngengati
ngengat
mengengati
mengengat
pxengengati
pxengengat
ayngengati
ayngengat





DAT
ngengaru
ngengar
mengengaru
mengengar
pxengengaru
pxengengar
ayngengaru
ayngengar





GEN
ngenge
mengenge
pxengenge
ayngenge





TOP
ngengari
mengengari
pxengengari
ayngengari





____________________________________________________________


Useful Link:

Na'vi Prezi Lessions - Pronouns
By Le'eylan

HTML version:
Download the Pronoun Guide
 :)

The member baritone has translated this guide in Russian language!
Download

That's all. ;)
« Last Edit: February 18, 2017, 12:05:09 pm by Tìtstewan »

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Offline Blue Elf

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #2 on: August 27, 2013, 01:36:06 pm »
Good guide,
but I'd like make some notes to make it even better.

In the basic pronouns paragraph, po do not have meaning "it". It means he or she - based on context. For "it" we must use derivations of tsa'u.
In counting examples maybe would be better to use pronouns instead nouns, as this thread is about them - but there's complete table with all forms of pronouns, so maybe it is not needed at all. (Maybe just to show irregularity in trial: pxoe, not *pxeoe).
And fko could be added into table (it is mentioned later, but why to do not have complete table?)

In Pronouns and cases, in PAT examples for all persons do not forget to add agentive suffix on yayo, as tse'a is transitive (in AGE example all is ok).
In TOP examples topical goes always first in sentence and examples needs to be completed - there's everywhere missing verbs. Using topical just instead of genitive has no sense :
A: Ngal peut fyep?
B: Oeyä tstalit -> Ok
Oeri tstalit -> not correct

And forms like *mefoyä and similar are not correct too - it should be mefeyä.
Rule is: add -yä suffix to form genitive (when pronous ends with vowel), but every vowel in front of this -yä changes to e. So all genitive forms of pronouns end with -eyä (oeyä, ngeyä, peyä, poeyä fkeyä, tseyä)
Rule 2: inclusive forms of pronouns ( ends with -ng) gets -a suffix when adding case ending. In fact -ng is just contraction of -nga and this -nga form must be used before you can add another suffix. So we have oengat(i), but not *oengti, oengal, not *oengìl

All other things should be correct, IMHO
Oe lu skxawng skxakep. Slä oe nerume mi.
"Oe tasyätxaw ulte koren za'u oehu" (Limonádový Joe)


Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #3 on: August 27, 2013, 01:38:53 pm »
Whooops, Well, these was some typos. :-[
I'm going to fix that. (into the code monster! :o)

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Offline Plumps

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #4 on: August 27, 2013, 01:43:37 pm »
Definitely useful for beginners.

There are a few odd sentence structures but a native speaker should comment on that.

Ninja’d by Blue Elf on the po > peyä forms ;D

I’m dubious about the stress on oeng

Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #5 on: August 27, 2013, 01:50:23 pm »
Well, If someone have a better sentence for it, please post here!

Quote
I’m dubious about the stress on oeng
That I read anywhere... :-[

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #6 on: August 27, 2013, 01:55:40 pm »

I’m dubious about the stress on oeng
What our dictionaries say:
main dictionary: oeng: ['wɛŋ] - single stressed syllable
dict-navi: oeng[ˈo.ɛŋ] - stress on first syllable (oeng)
Czech-Navi dictionary: oeng

Well, who can decide?
BTW - what about sticky this thread and unsticky and lock the old one? Here all useful information are in first (two) post(s).
Oe lu skxawng skxakep. Slä oe nerume mi.
"Oe tasyätxaw ulte koren za'u oehu" (Limonádový Joe)


Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #7 on: August 27, 2013, 02:06:25 pm »

I’m dubious about the stress on oeng
What our dictionaries say:
main dictionary: oeng: ['wɛŋ] - single stressed syllable
dict-navi: oeng[ˈo.ɛŋ] - stress on first syllable (oeng)
Czech-Navi dictionary: oeng

Well, who can decide?
BTW - what about sticky this thread and unsticky and lock the old one? Here all useful information are in first (two) post(s).
O.O :o ??? ???

Corrected!

In counting examples maybe would be better to use pronouns instead nouns, as this thread is about them - but there's complete table with all forms of pronouns, so maybe it is not needed at all.
I've added some examples with pronouns. ;)

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #8 on: August 27, 2013, 02:06:58 pm »

I’m dubious about the stress on oeng
What our dictionaries say:
main dictionary: oeng: ['wɛŋ] - single stressed syllable
dict-navi: oeng[ˈo.ɛŋ] - stress on first syllable (oeng)
Czech-Navi dictionary: oeng

Well, who can decide?
BTW - what about sticky this thread and unsticky and lock the old one? Here all useful information are in first (two) post(s).

I tried to find the post about the pronunciation of the -oe- words but the wiki is broken at the moment. /weng/ is surely right in colloquial speech but in careful speech I would expect /'o.eng/
*/o.'eng/ is definitely wrong.

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #9 on: August 27, 2013, 02:19:11 pm »
*/o.'eng/ is definitely wrong.
Why? Stress on "e" (oeng) is even marked in Horen...
Tìvawmìri txopu rä’ä si. Nrr!

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #10 on: August 27, 2013, 02:22:06 pm »
Hmm, I've never seen forms like mefoe, mefoan, pxefoe, pxefoan.
this require investigation/confirmation from Paul, IMO

Meh, it's forbidden!
Horen: 3.2.2.4. The third person animate po does not distinguish gender — it will do for “he” or “she”
in English. However, gendered forms do exist, poan he and poe she, which are declined regularly,
though they do not have plural forms. See §6.3.1 for their use.

Please, no free creations. Rules must be followed.
Oe lu skxawng skxakep. Slä oe nerume mi.
"Oe tasyätxaw ulte koren za'u oehu" (Limonádový Joe)


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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #11 on: August 27, 2013, 02:23:27 pm »
*/o.'eng/ is definitely wrong.
Why? Stress on "e" (oeng) is even marked in Horen...
That's strange, as syllables are o.eng, not o.e.ng, isn't it???
Oe lu skxawng skxakep. Slä oe nerume mi.
"Oe tasyätxaw ulte koren za'u oehu" (Limonádový Joe)


Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #12 on: August 27, 2013, 02:23:58 pm »
Ma Blue Elf,
I already corrected it. ;) (F5 button ftw!)

BTW - what about sticky this thread and unsticky and lock the old one? Here all useful information are in first (two) post(s).
This!

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #13 on: August 27, 2013, 02:29:26 pm »
Ma Blue Elf,
I already corrected it. ;) (F5 button ftw!)

BTW - what about sticky this thread and unsticky and lock the old one? Here all useful information are in first (two) post(s).
This!

Done.

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Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #14 on: August 28, 2013, 07:03:40 am »
So, I complete the stuff. I added the 3rd inanimate and the ceremonial forms in the second post as well. :)

There are a few odd sentence structures but a native speaker should comment on that.
^Fì'u.
Please post here or sent me a PM if you found a mistake or you have a better example (especially for the text examples).
 - Irayo!



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WOU THAT CODE LOL
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Offline Blue Elf

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #15 on: August 28, 2013, 01:22:45 pm »
Sentences like "Tsa'u ke kem si" should be corrected to Tsa'u kekem ke si.
- si verbs are negated by ke in front of si part
- official word for "no action" is kekem (maybe kea kem ke si would be acceptable too, but as we have kekem, it is safer to use it)
Oe lu skxawng skxakep. Slä oe nerume mi.
"Oe tasyätxaw ulte koren za'u oehu" (Limonádový Joe)


Offline Kamean

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #16 on: August 28, 2013, 01:25:43 pm »
Very good guide. :)
Tse'a ngal ke'ut a krr fra'uti kame.


Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #17 on: August 28, 2013, 01:36:30 pm »
Sentences like "Tsa'u ke kem si" should be corrected to Tsa'u kekem ke si.
- si verbs are negated by ke in front of si part
- official word for "no action" is kekem (maybe kea kem ke si would be acceptable too, but as we have kekem, it is safer to use it)
Irayo! Fixed!

Very good guide. :)
Irayo! :D

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #18 on: August 28, 2013, 08:38:16 pm »
Sentences like "Tsa'u ke kem si" should be corrected to Tsa'u kekem ke si.
- si verbs are negated by ke in front of si part
- official word for "no action" is kekem (maybe kea kem ke si would be acceptable too, but as we have kekem, it is safer to use it)

I am wondering if it is possible to use si on an adverb like kekem. I could see something like Fìtsengmì ke lu kekem and that should be correct as kekem is modifying a verb. I am not even sure if a sentence like Tsa'u ke kem si or Tsa'u kekem ke si is correct. It certainly has a strange meaning: "That thing no action". Something like Tsa'uru ke lu kekem, or perhaps Tas'uri ke lu kekem makes more sense, at least to this English-ruined mind.

Yawey ngahu!
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Offline Tìtstewan

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Re: The Pronoun Guide
« Reply #19 on: August 28, 2013, 08:52:58 pm »
"This do nothing" Should be Tsa'u kekem ke si, because kekem ke si = do nothing.
Fìtsenge:
Quote from: On Na'viteri:
Ayngeyä kifkeyti fol kawngsar nìtut, fì’uri kekem ke si aynga.
‘They continuously exploit your world and you do nothing about it.’

BTW:
I would add kekem ke si in the dictionary because it's missing there. It have only kem si = do.
kekem ke si = do nothing
kem ke si = do not
kem si = do
« Last Edit: August 28, 2013, 08:58:59 pm by Tìtstewan »

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