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The Pronoun Guide

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Tìtstewan:
The Pronoun Guide
A detailed guide about the pronouns of the Na'vi language.

Kaltxì ma frapo ulte zola'u nìprrte' fìtsenge!

Well, a guide like this is needed here, it really is. :P So I hope you’ll enjoy it. :)


The Pronouns

Like in English the Na'vi also have pronouns for people or living things which they represent.
There are the basic forms I, you, he / she, it from which all pronouns may be formed.
Note that the Na'vi pronouns have different plurals and they also distinguish whether the listener
is included in the action or not.
The Basic Pronouns
________________________oeIngayoupohe or shepoeshepoanhefkoone, theytsa'u, tsawthat (thing)____
-e is a female suffix.*
-an is a male suffix.*_______The Count________________________me+two, dualpxe+three, trialay+pluralExamples________________________meyayotwo birdspxelì'uthree wordsayutraltreesmengayou twopxefothree of she/he (lenited form of po!)ayoewe allNote: More examples about the the dual, trial and plurals please read below.

Person      Singular            Dual            Trial            Plural1st (exclusive)oemoepxoeayoe1st (inclusive)-oengpxoengayoeng, awnga2ndngamengapxengaaynga3rd (animate)pomefopxefoayfo, fo3rd (inanimate)tsa’u, tsawmesa’upxesa’uaysa’u, sa’ureflexivesno---

Inclusive and Exclusive

Inclusive

* This means the inclusion of the listener. If you write e.g oeng it means you and the listener.
If you look closer at oeng, it contains oe and nga - I and you.
Oeng yerom means We both are eating - you and the listener are eating together.
Exclusive

* This means the exclusion of the listener. If you use moe, you exclude the listener from the action.
In the word moe, a form of nga is missing, hence it will be like this example:
Moe yerom - We both are eating, but not you (listener), to whom I tell this.
Examples
           Pxoe tswerayon ayikranfa. --> We three (not you) are flying by help of the banshees.
           Fìtstal lu oengaru --> This knife belongs to us. (you and your listener).
           Poanit tse'a oengal --> We (you and your listener) see him.


Honorific and Ceremonial

Of course, the Na'vi have a honorific/ceremonial form of the pronouns.

      Singular            Dual            Trial            Plural      1st (exclusive)ohemohepxoheayohe2ndngengamengengapxengengaayngengaNote: Even in careful speech, oeru and oehu are pronounced "weru" and "wehu."


All Pronouns and their Cases

Following are all known pronouns, their cases and short forms,
but first...
...Key:
SUB = Subjective
AGE = Agentive
PAT = Patientive
DAT = Dative
GEN = Genitive
TOP = Topic_______Pxoengat tsere'a yayol.

Note:

* The underlined letters in the words mean the stress.
* The blue-colored letters are the case suffixes.
Read more about the cases HERE.
* Big-written letter in the topic examples don't mean any stressing / emphasis.
The Pronouns

1st (exclusive)CaseSingularDualTrialPluralSUBoemoepxoeayoeOe uvan seri.Moe uvan seri.Pxoe uvan seri.Ayoe uvan seri.AGEoelmoelpxoelayoelOel tse'a fìyayot.Moel tsere'a fìyayot.Pxoel tsere'a fìyayot.Ayoel tsere'a fìyayot.PAToeti, oetmoeti, moetpxoeti, pxoetayoeti, ayoetYayol tsere'a oeti.Yayol tsere'a moeti.Yayol tsere'a pxoeti.Yayol tsere'a ayoeti.DAToeru, oermoeru, moerpxoeru, pxoerayoeru, ayoerPoel zamunge oeru 'uti.Poel zamunge moeru 'uti.Poel zamunge pxoeru 'uti.Poel zamunge ayoeru 'uti.GENoeyämoeyäpxoeyäayoeyäOeyä kelku.Moeyä mehelku.Pxoeyä pxehelku.Ayoeyä ayhelku.TOPoerimoeripxoeriayoeriOeri zekwä.Moeri mezekwä.Pxoeri pxezekwä.Ayoeri ayzekwä.

1st (inclusive)CaseSingularDualTrialPluralSUBNo singularoengpxoengayoeng*, awngaOeng uvan seri.Pxoeng uvan seri.Ayoeng uvan seri.AGENo singularoengalpxoengalayoengal, awngalOengal tsere'a fìyayot.Pxoengal tsere'a fìyayot.Ayoengal tsere'a fìyayot.PATNo singularoengati, oengatpxoengati,
pxoengatayoengati, awngatYayol tsere'a oengati.Yayol tsere'a pxoengati.Yayol tse'a ayoengati.DATNo singularoengaru, oengarpxoengaru,
pxoengarayoengaru, awngaru,
ayoengar, awngarPoel zamunge oengaru 'uti.Poel zamunge pxoengaru 'uti.Poel zamunge ayoengaru 'uti.GENNo singularoengeyäpxoengeyäayoengeyä, awngeyäOengeyä mehelku.Pxoengeyä pxehelkuAyoengeyä ayhelkuTOPNo singularoengaripxoengariayoengari, awngariOengari mezekwä.Pxoengari pxezekwä.Ayoengari ayzekwä.

2ndCaseSingularDualTrialPluralSUBngamengapxengaayngaNga uvan si.Menga uvan si.Pxenga uvan si.Aynga uvan si.AGEngalmengalpxengalayngalNgal tse'a fìyayot.Mengal tse'a fìyayot.Pxengal tse'a fìyayot.Ayngal tse'a fìyayot.PATngati, ngatmengati, mengatpxengati, pxengatayngati, ayngatYayol tsere'a ngati.Yayol tsere'a mengati.Yayol tsere'a pxengati.Yayol tsere'a ayngati.DATngaru, ngarmengaru, mengarpxengaru, pxengarayngaru, ayngarPoel zamunge ngaru 'uti.Poel zamunge mengaru 'uti.Poel zamunge pxengaru 'uti.Poel zamunge ayngaru 'uti.GENngeyämengeyäpxengeyäayngeyäNgeyä kelku.Mengeyä mehelku.Pxengeyä pxehelku.Ayngeyä ayhelku.TOPngarimengaripxengariayngariNgari zekwä.Mengari mezekwä.Pxengari pxezekwä.Ayngari ayzekwä.

3rd (animate)CaseSingularDualTrialPluralSUBpomefopxefoayfo, foPo uvan si.Mefo uvan si.Pxefo uvan si.Ayfo uvan si.AGEpolmefolpxefolayfol, folPol tse'a fìyayot.Mefol tse'a fìyayot.Pxefol tse'a fìyayot.Ayfol tse'a fìyayot.PATpoti, potmefoti, mefotpxefoti, pxefotayfoti, foti
ayfot, fotYayol tsere'a poti.Yayol tsere'a mefoti.Yayol tsere'a pxefoti.Yayol tsere'a ayfoti.DATporu, pormeforu, meforpxeforu, pxeforayforu, foru
ayfor, forPoel zamunge poru 'uti.Poel zamunge meforu 'uti.Poel zamunge pxeforu 'uti.Poel zamunge ayforu 'uti.GENpeyämefeyäpxefeyäayfeyä, feyäPeyä kelku.Mefeyä mehelku.Pxefeyä pxehelku.Ayfeyä ayhelku.TOPporimeforipxeforiayfori, foriPori zekwä.Mefori mezekwä.Pxefori pxezekwä.Ayfori ayzekwä.

Tìtstewan:
3rd (animate and singular only)CaseMaleFemaleIndefiniteSUBpoanpoefkoPoan tìran.Poe tìran.Fko tìran.AGEpoanìlpoelfkolPoanìl yur fìpayoangit.Poel yur fìpayoangit.Fkol yur fìpayoangit.PATpoanit, poantipoeti, poetfkoti, fkotPoanit teraron oel.Poet teraron oel.Fkot teraron oel.DATpoanurpoeru, poerfkoru, fkorOel zamunge poanur 'uti.Oel zamunge poeru 'uti.Oel zamunge fkoru 'uti.GENpoanäpoeyäfkeyäPoanä tsko.Poeyä tsko.Fkeyä tsko.TOPpoanìripoerifkoriPoanìri kinam.Poeri kinam.Fkori kinam.

3rd (inanimate)CaseSingularDualTrialPluralSUBtsa'u, tsawmesa'upxesa'uaysa'u, sa'u, sawTsa'u kekem ke si.Mesa'u kekem ke si.Pxesa'u kekem ke si.Aysa'u kekem ke si.AGEtsa'ul, tsalmesa'ulpxesa'ulaysa'ul, sa'ulTsa'ul tsere'a awngat.Mesa'ul tsere'a awngat.Pxesa'ul tsere'a awngat.Aysa'ul tse'a awngat.PATtsa'ut, tsatmesa'utpxesa'utaysa'ut, sa'utTsa'ut tse'a awngal.Mesa'ut tse'a awngal.Pxesa'ut tse'a awngal.Aysa'ut tse'a awngal.DATtsa'uru, tsa'ur, tsarmesa'uru, mesa'urpxesa'uru, pxesa'uraysa'uru, aysa'ur
sa'uru, sa'urNgal zamunge tsa'uru 'uti.Ngal zamunge mesa'uru 'uti.Ngal zamunge pxesa'uru 'uti.Ngal zamunge aysa'uru 'uti.GENtsa'uä, tseyämesa'uäpxesa'uäaysa'uä, sa'uäTsa'uä 'opin lu lor.Mesa'uä 'opin lu lor.Pxesa'uä 'opin lu lor.Aysa'uä 'opin lu lor.TOPtsa'uri, tsarimesa'uripxesa'uriaysa'uri, sa'uriTsa'uri lolu lehrrap.Mesa'uri lolu lehrrap.Pxesa'uri lolu lehrrap.Aysa'uri lolu lehrrap.

The Ceremonial Pronoun
Here I don't add text examples, because they are similar like the non-ceremonial forms above.


1st (exclusive, ceremonial)SingularDualTrialPluralSUBohemohepxoheayoheAGEohelmohelpxohelayohelPAToheti, ohetmoheti, mohetpxoheti, pxohetayoheti, ayohetDAToheru, ohermoheru, moherpxoheru, pxoherayoheru, ayoherGENoheyämoheyäpxoheyäayoheyäTOPoherimoheripxoheriayoheri____________________________________________________________
2nd (ceremonial)SingularDualTrialPluralSUBngengamengengapxengengaayngengaAGEngengalmengengalpxengengalayngengalPATngengati
ngengatmengengati
mengengatpxengengati
pxengengatayngengati
ayngengatDATngengaru
ngengarmengengaru
mengengarpxengengaru
pxengengarayngengaru
ayngengarGENngengeyämengengeyäpxengengeyäayngengeyäTOPngengarimengengaripxengengariayngengari____________________________________________________________

Useful Link:

Na'vi Prezi Lessions - Pronouns
By Le'eylan

HTML version:
Download the Pronoun Guide
 :)

The member baritone has translated this guide in Russian language!
Download

That's all. ;)

Blue Elf:
Good guide,
but I'd like make some notes to make it even better.

In the basic pronouns paragraph, po do not have meaning "it". It means he or she - based on context. For "it" we must use derivations of tsa'u.
In counting examples maybe would be better to use pronouns instead nouns, as this thread is about them - but there's complete table with all forms of pronouns, so maybe it is not needed at all. (Maybe just to show irregularity in trial: pxoe, not *pxeoe).
And fko could be added into table (it is mentioned later, but why to do not have complete table?)

In Pronouns and cases, in PAT examples for all persons do not forget to add agentive suffix on yayo, as tse'a is transitive (in AGE example all is ok).
In TOP examples topical goes always first in sentence and examples needs to be completed - there's everywhere missing verbs. Using topical just instead of genitive has no sense :
A: Ngal peut fyep?
B: Oeyä tstalit -> Ok
Oeri tstalit -> not correct

And forms like *mefoyä and similar are not correct too - it should be mefeyä.
Rule is: add -yä suffix to form genitive (when pronous ends with vowel), but every vowel in front of this -yä changes to e. So all genitive forms of pronouns end with -eyä (oeyä, ngeyä, peyä, poeyä fkeyä, tseyä)
Rule 2: inclusive forms of pronouns ( ends with -ng) gets -a suffix when adding case ending. In fact -ng is just contraction of -nga and this -nga form must be used before you can add another suffix. So we have oengat(i), but not *oengti, oengal, not *oengìl

All other things should be correct, IMHO

Tìtstewan:
Whooops, Well, these was some typos. :-[
I'm going to fix that. (into the code monster! :o)

Plumps:
Definitely useful for beginners.

There are a few odd sentence structures but a native speaker should comment on that.

Ninja’d by Blue Elf on the po > peyä forms ;D

I’m dubious about the stress on oeng

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